Chapter 2. Installing and Upgrading MySQL

Table of Contents

2.1. General Installation Guidance
2.1.1. Operating Systems Supported by MySQL Community Server
2.1.2. Choosing Which MySQL Distribution to Install
2.1.3. How to Get MySQL
2.1.4. Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG
2.1.5. Installation Layouts
2.1.6. Compiler-Specific Build Characteristics
2.2. Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries
2.3. Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows
2.3.1. MySQL Installation Layout on Microsoft Windows
2.3.2. Choosing An Installation Package
2.3.3. Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using MySQL Installer
2.3.4. MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows
2.3.5. Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using a noinstall Zip Archive
2.3.6. Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows MySQL Server Installation
2.3.7. Upgrading MySQL on Windows
2.3.8. Windows Postinstallation Procedures
2.4. Installing MySQL on Mac OS X
2.4.1. General Notes on Installing MySQL on Mac OS X
2.4.2. Installing MySQL on Mac OS X Using Native Packages
2.4.3. Installing the MySQL Startup Item
2.4.4. Installing and Using the MySQL Preference Pane
2.4.5. Using the Bundled MySQL on Mac OS X Server
2.5. Installing MySQL on Linux
2.5.1. Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages
2.5.2. Installing MySQL on Linux Using Debian Packages
2.5.3. Installing MySQL on Linux Using Native Package Managers
2.6. Installing MySQL on Solaris and OpenSolaris
2.6.1. Installing MySQL on Solaris Using a Solaris PKG
2.6.2. Installing MySQL on OpenSolaris Using IPS
2.7. Installing MySQL on HP-UX
2.7.1. General Notes on Installing MySQL on HP-UX
2.7.2. Installing MySQL on HP-UX Using DEPOT Packages
2.8. Installing MySQL on FreeBSD
2.9. Installing MySQL from Source
2.9.1. MySQL Layout for Source Installation
2.9.2. Installing MySQL Using a Standard Source Distribution
2.9.3. Installing MySQL Using a Development Source Tree
2.9.4. MySQL Source-Configuration Options
2.9.5. Dealing with Problems Compiling MySQL
2.9.6. MySQL Configuration and Third-Party Tools
2.10. Postinstallation Setup and Testing
2.10.1. Unix Postinstallation Procedures
2.10.2. Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts
2.11. Upgrading or Downgrading MySQL
2.11.1. Upgrading MySQL
2.11.2. Downgrading MySQL
2.11.3. Checking Whether Tables or Indexes Must Be Rebuilt
2.11.4. Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes
2.11.5. Copying MySQL Databases to Another Machine
2.12. Environment Variables
2.13. Perl Installation Notes
2.13.1. Installing Perl on Unix
2.13.2. Installing ActiveState Perl on Windows
2.13.3. Problems Using the Perl DBI/DBD Interface

This chapter describes how to obtain and install MySQL. A summary of the procedure follows and later sections provide the details. If you plan to upgrade an existing version of MySQL to a newer version rather than install MySQL for the first time, see Section 2.11.1, “Upgrading MySQL”, for information about upgrade procedures and about issues that you should consider before upgrading.

If you are interested in migrating to MySQL from another database system, you may wish to read Section B.8, “MySQL 5.6 FAQ: Migration”, which contains answers to some common questions concerning migration issues.

Installation of MySQL generally follows the steps outlined here:

  1. Determine whether MySQL runs and is supported on your platform.

    Please note that not all platforms are equally suitable for running MySQL, and that not all platforms on which MySQL is known to run are officially supported by Oracle Corporation:

  2. Choose which distribution to install.

    Several versions of MySQL are available, and most are available in several distribution formats. You can choose from pre-packaged distributions containing binary (precompiled) programs or source code. When in doubt, use a binary distribution. We also provide public access to our current source tree for those who want to see our most recent developments and help us test new code. To determine which version and type of distribution you should use, see Section 2.1.2, “Choosing Which MySQL Distribution to Install”.

  3. Download the distribution that you want to install.

    For instructions, see Section 2.1.3, “How to Get MySQL”. To verify the integrity of the distribution, use the instructions in Section 2.1.4, “Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG”.

  4. Install the distribution.

    To install MySQL from a binary distribution, use the instructions in Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”.

    To install MySQL from a source distribution or from the current development source tree, use the instructions in Section 2.9, “Installing MySQL from Source”.

  5. Perform any necessary postinstallation setup.

    After installing MySQL, see Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing” for information about making sure the MySQL server is working properly. Also refer to the information provided in Section 2.10.2, “Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts”. This section describes how to secure the initial MySQL user accounts, which have no passwords until you assign passwords. The section applies whether you install MySQL using a binary or source distribution.

  6. If you want to run the MySQL benchmark scripts, Perl support for MySQL must be available. See Section 2.13, “Perl Installation Notes”.

Instructions for installing MySQL on different platforms and environments is available on a platform by platform basis:

2.1. General Installation Guidance

The immediately following sections contain the information necessary to choose, download, and verify your distribution. The instructions in later sections of the chapter describe how to install the distribution that you choose. For binary distributions, see the instructions at Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries” or the corresponding section for your platform if available. To build MySQL from source, use the instructions in Section 2.9, “Installing MySQL from Source”.

2.1.1. Operating Systems Supported by MySQL Community Server

This section lists the operating systems on which MySQL Community Server is known to run.

Important

Oracle Corporation does not necessarily provide official support for all the platforms listed in this section. For information about those platforms that are officially supported, see http://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/database.html on the MySQL Web site.

We use CMake, so it is possible to port MySQL to all modern systems that have a C++ compiler and a working implementation of POSIX threads. (Thread support is needed for the server. To compile only the client code, the only requirement is a C++ compiler.)

MySQL has been reported to compile successfully on the following systems:

MySQL has also been known to run on other systems in the past. See Section 2.1, “General Installation Guidance”. Some porting effort might be required for current versions of MySQL on these systems.

Not all platforms are equally well-suited for running MySQL. How well a certain platform is suited for a high-load mission-critical MySQL server is determined by the following factors:

  • General stability of the thread library. A platform may have an excellent reputation otherwise, but MySQL is only as stable as the thread library it calls, even if everything else is perfect.

  • The capability of the kernel and the thread library to take advantage of symmetric multi-processor (SMP) systems. In other words, when a process creates a thread, it should be possible for that thread to run on a CPU different from the original process.

  • The capability of the kernel and the thread library to run many threads that acquire and release a mutex over a short critical region frequently without excessive context switches. If the implementation of pthread_mutex_lock() is too anxious to yield CPU time, this hurts MySQL tremendously. If this issue is not taken care of, adding extra CPUs actually makes MySQL slower.

  • General file system stability and performance.

  • Table size. If your tables are large, performance is affected by the ability of the file system to deal with large files and dealing with them efficiently.

  • Our level of expertise here at Oracle Corporation with the platform. If we know a platform well, we enable platform-specific optimizations and fixes at compile time. We can also provide advice on configuring your system optimally for MySQL.

  • The amount of testing we have done internally for similar configurations.

  • The number of users that have run MySQL successfully on the platform in similar configurations. If this number is high, the likelihood of encountering platform-specific surprises is much smaller.

2.1.2. Choosing Which MySQL Distribution to Install

When preparing to install MySQL, you should decide which version to use. MySQL development occurs in several release series, and you can pick the one that best fits your needs. After deciding which version to install, you can choose a distribution format. Releases are available in binary or source format.

2.1.2.1. Choosing Which Version of MySQL to Install

The first decision to make is whether you want to use a production (stable) release or a development release. In the MySQL development process, multiple release series co-exist, each at a different stage of maturity.

Production Releases
  • MySQL 5.6: Latest General Availability (Production) release

  • MySQL 5.5: Previous General Availability (Production) release

  • MySQL 5.1: Older General Availability (Production) release

  • MySQL 5.0: Older Production release nearing the end of the product lifecycle

MySQL 4.1, 4.0, and 3.23 are old releases that are no longer supported.

See http://www.mysql.com/about/legal/lifecycle/ for information about support policies and schedules.

Normally, if you are beginning to use MySQL for the first time or trying to port it to some system for which there is no binary distribution, use the most recent General Availability series listed in the preceding descriptions. All MySQL releases, even those from development series, are checked with the MySQL benchmarks and an extensive test suite before being issued.

If you are running an older system and want to upgrade, but do not want to take the chance of having a nonseamless upgrade, you should upgrade to the latest version in the same release series you are using (where only the last part of the version number is newer than yours). We have tried to fix only fatal bugs and make only small, relatively safe changes to that version.

If you want to use new features not present in the production release series, you can use a version from a development series. Be aware that development releases are not as stable as production releases.

We do not use a complete code freeze because this prevents us from making bugfixes and other fixes that must be done. We may add small things that should not affect anything that currently works in a production release. Naturally, relevant bugfixes from an earlier series propagate to later series.

If you want to use the very latest sources containing all current patches and bugfixes, you can use one of our source code repositories (see Section 2.9.3, “Installing MySQL Using a Development Source Tree”). These are not releases as such, but are available as previews of the code on which future releases are to be based.

The naming scheme in MySQL 5.6 uses release names that consist of three numbers and a suffix; for example, mysql-5.6.1-m1. The numbers within the release name are interpreted as follows:

  • The first number (5) is the major version and describes the file format. All MySQL 5 releases have the same file format.

  • The second number (6) is the release level. Taken together, the major version and release level constitute the release series number.

  • The third number (1) is the version number within the release series. This is incremented for each new release. Usually you want the latest version for the series you have chosen.

For each minor update, the last number in the version string is incremented. When there are major new features or minor incompatibilities with previous versions, the second number in the version string is incremented. When the file format changes, the first number is increased.

Release names also include a suffix to indicates the stability level of the release. Releases within a series progress through a set of suffixes to indicate how the stability level improves. The possible suffixes are:

  • mN (for example, m1, m2, m3, ...) indicate a milestone number. MySQL development uses a milestone model, in which each milestone proceeds through a small number of versions with a tight focus on a small subset of thoroughly tested features. Following the releases for one milestone, development proceeds with another small number of releases that focuses on the next small set of features, also thoroughly tested. Features within milestone releases may be considered to be of pre-production quality.

  • rc indicates a Release Candidate. Release candidates are believed to be stable, having passed all of MySQL's internal testing, and with all known fatal runtime bugs fixed. However, the release has not been in widespread use long enough to know for sure that all bugs have been identified. Only minor fixes are added.

  • If there is no suffix, it indicates that the release is a General Availability (GA) or Production release. GA releases are stable, having successfully passed through all earlier release stages and are believed to be reliable, free of serious bugs, and suitable for use in production systems. Only critical bugfixes are applied to the release.

All releases of MySQL are run through our standard tests and benchmarks to ensure that they are relatively safe to use. Because the standard tests are extended over time to check for all previously found bugs, the test suite keeps getting better.

All releases have been tested at least with these tools:

  • An internal test suite. The mysql-test directory contains an extensive set of test cases. We run these tests for every server binary. See Section 23.1.2, “The MySQL Test Suite”, for more information about this test suite.

  • The MySQL benchmark suite. This suite runs a range of common queries. It is also a test to determine whether the latest batch of optimizations actually made the code faster. See Section 8.12.2, “The MySQL Benchmark Suite”.

We also perform additional integration and nonfunctional testing of the latest MySQL version in our internal production environment. Integration testing is done with different connectors, storage engines, replication modes, backup, partitioning, stored programs, and so forth in various combinations. Additional nonfunctional testing is done in areas of performance, concurrency, stress, high volume, upgrade and downgrade.

2.1.2.2. Choosing a Distribution Format

After choosing which version of MySQL to install, you should decide whether to use a binary distribution or a source distribution. In most cases, you should probably use a binary distribution, if one exists for your platform. Binary distributions are available in native format for many platforms, such as RPM packages for Linux, DMG packages for Mac OS X, and PKG packages for Solaris. Distributions are also available in more generic formats such as Zip archives or compressed tar files.

Reasons to choose a binary distribution include the following:

  • Binary distributions generally are easier to install than source distributions.

  • To satisfy different user requirements, we provide several servers in binary distributions. mysqld is an optimized server that is a smaller, faster binary. mysqld-debug is compiled with debugging support.

    Each of these servers is compiled from the same source distribution, though with different configuration options. All native MySQL clients can connect to servers from either MySQL version.

Under some circumstances, you may be better off installing MySQL from a source distribution:

  • You want to install MySQL at some explicit location. The standard binary distributions are ready to run at any installation location, but you might require even more flexibility to place MySQL components where you want.

  • You want to configure mysqld to ensure that features are available that might not be included in the standard binary distributions. Here is a list of the most common extra options that you may want to use to ensure feature availability:

    For additional information, see Section 2.9.4, “MySQL Source-Configuration Options”.

  • You want to configure mysqld without some features that are included in the standard binary distributions. For example, distributions normally are compiled with support for all character sets. If you want a smaller MySQL server, you can recompile it with support for only the character sets you need.

  • You want to use the latest sources from one of the Bazaar repositories to have access to all current bugfixes. For example, if you have found a bug and reported it to the MySQL development team, the bugfix is committed to the source repository and you can access it there. The bugfix does not appear in a release until a release actually is issued.

  • You want to read (or modify) the C and C++ code that makes up MySQL. For this purpose, you should get a source distribution, because the source code is always the ultimate manual.

  • Source distributions contain more tests and examples than binary distributions.

2.1.2.3. How and When Updates Are Released

MySQL is evolving quite rapidly and we want to share new developments with other MySQL users. We try to produce a new release whenever we have new and useful features that others also seem to have a need for.

We also try to help users who request features that are easy to implement. We take note of what our licensed users want, and we especially take note of what our support customers want and try to help them in this regard.

No one is required to download a new release. The Release Notes help you determine whether the new release has something you really want.

We use the following policy when updating MySQL:

  • Enterprise Server releases are meant to appear every 18 months, supplemented by quarterly service packs and monthly rapid updates. Community Server releases are meant to appear 2 to 3 times per year.

  • Releases are issued within each series. For each release, the last number in the version is one more than the previous release within the same series.

  • Binary distributions for some platforms are made by us for major releases. Other people may make binary distributions for other systems, but probably less frequently.

  • We make fixes available as soon as we have identified and corrected small or noncritical but annoying bugs. The fixes are available in source form immediately from our public Bazaar repositories, and are included in the next release.

  • If by any chance a security vulnerability or critical bug is found in a release, our policy is to fix it in a new release as soon as possible. (We would like other companies to do this, too!)

2.1.3. How to Get MySQL

Check our downloads page at http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/ for information about the current version of MySQL and for downloading instructions. For a complete up-to-date list of MySQL download mirror sites, see http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mirrors.html. You can also find information there about becoming a MySQL mirror site and how to report a bad or out-of-date mirror.

To obtain the latest development source, see Section 2.9.3, “Installing MySQL Using a Development Source Tree”.

2.1.4. Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG

After you have downloaded the MySQL package that suits your needs and before you attempt to install it, you should make sure that it is intact and has not been tampered with. There are three means of integrity checking:

  • MD5 checksums

  • Cryptographic signatures using GnuPG, the GNU Privacy Guard

  • For RPM packages, the built-in RPM integrity verification mechanism

The following sections describe how to use these methods.

If you notice that the MD5 checksum or GPG signatures do not match, first try to download the respective package one more time, perhaps from another mirror site.

2.1.4.1. Verifying the MD5 Checksum

After you have downloaded a MySQL package, you should make sure that its MD5 checksum matches the one provided on the MySQL download pages. Each package has an individual checksum that you can verify against the package that you downloaded. The correct MD5 checksum is listed on the downloads page for each MySQL product, and you will compare it against the MD5 checksum of the file (product) that you download.

Each operating system and setup offers its own version of tools for checking the MD5 checksum. Typically the command is named md5sum, or it may be named md5, and some operating systems do not ship it at all. On Linux, it is part of the GNU Text Utilities package, which is available for a wide range of platforms. You can also download the source code from http://www.gnu.org/software/textutils/. If you have OpenSSL installed, you can use the command openssl md5 package_name instead. A Windows implementation of the md5 command line utility is available from http://www.fourmilab.ch/md5/. winMd5Sum is a graphical MD5 checking tool that can be obtained from http://www.nullriver.com/index/products/winmd5sum. Our Microsoft Windows examples will assume the name md5.exe.

Linux and Microsoft Windows examples:

shell> md5sum mysql-standard-5.6.15-linux-i686.tar.gz
aaab65abbec64d5e907dcd41b8699945  mysql-standard-5.6.15-linux-i686.tar.gz
shell> md5.exe mysql-installer-community-5.6.15.msi
aaab65abbec64d5e907dcd41b8699945  mysql-installer-community-5.6.15.msi

You should verify that the resulting checksum (the string of hexadecimal digits) matches the one displayed on the download page immediately below the respective package.

Note

Make sure to verify the checksum of the archive file (for example, the .zip, .tar.gz, or .msi file) and not of the files that are contained inside of the archive. In other words, verify the file before extracting its contents.

2.1.4.2. Signature Checking Using GnuPG

Another method of verifying the integrity and authenticity of a package is to use cryptographic signatures. This is more reliable than using MD5 checksums, but requires more work.

We sign MySQL downloadable packages with GnuPG (GNU Privacy Guard). GnuPG is an Open Source alternative to the well-known Pretty Good Privacy (PGP) by Phil Zimmermann. See http://www.gnupg.org/ for more information about GnuPG and how to obtain and install it on your system. Most Linux distributions ship with GnuPG installed by default. For more information about GnuPG, see http://www.openpgp.org/.

To verify the signature for a specific package, you first need to obtain a copy of our public GPG build key, which you can download from http://pgp.mit.edu/. The key that you want to obtain is named mysql-build@oss.oracle.com. Alternatively, you can cut and paste the key directly from the following text:

-----BEGIN PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----
Version: PGP Universal 2.9.1 (Build 347)
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=Eto8
-----END PGP PUBLIC KEY BLOCK-----

To import the build key into your personal public GPG keyring, use gpg --import. For example, if you have saved the key in a file named mysql_pubkey.asc, the import command looks like this:

shell> gpg --import mysql_pubkey.asc
gpg: key 5072E1F5: public key "MySQL Release Engineering
<mysql-build@oss.oracle.com>" imported
gpg: Total number processed: 1
gpg:               imported: 1
gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found

You can also download the key from the public keyserver using the public key id, 5072E1F5:

shell> gpg --recv-keys 5072E1F5
gpg: requesting key 5072E1F5 from hkp server keys.gnupg.net
gpg: key 5072E1F5: "MySQL Release Engineering <mysql-build@oss.oracle.com>"
1 new user ID
gpg: key 5072E1F5: "MySQL Release Engineering <mysql-build@oss.oracle.com>"
53 new signatures
gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found
gpg: Total number processed: 1
gpg:           new user IDs: 1
gpg:         new signatures: 53

If you want to import the key into your RPM configuration to validate RPM install packages, you should be able to import the key directly:

shell> rpm --import mysql_pubkey.asc

If you experience problems or require RPM specific information, see Section 2.1.4.4, “Signature Checking Using RPM”.

After you have downloaded and imported the public build key, download your desired MySQL package and the corresponding signature, which also is available from the download page. The signature file has the same name as the distribution file with an .asc extension, as shown by the examples in the following table.

Table 2.1. MySQL Package and Signature Files for Source files

File TypeFile Name
Distribution filemysql-standard-5.6.15-linux-i686.tar.gz
Signature filemysql-standard-5.6.15-linux-i686.tar.gz.asc

Make sure that both files are stored in the same directory and then run the following command to verify the signature for the distribution file:

shell> gpg --verify package_name.asc

If the downloaded package is valid, you will see a "Good signature" similar to:

shell> gpg --verify mysql-standard-5.6.15-linux-i686.tar.gz.asc
gpg: Signature made Tue 01 Feb 2011 02:38:30 AM CST using DSA key ID 5072E1F5
gpg: Good signature from "MySQL Release Engineering <mysql-build@oss.oracle.com>"

The Good signature message indicates that the file signature is valid, when compared to the signature listed on our site. But you might also see warnings, like so:

shell> gpg --verify mysql-standard-5.6.15-linux-i686.tar.gz.asc
gpg: Signature made Wed 23 Jan 2013 02:25:45 AM PST using DSA key ID 5072E1F5
gpg: checking the trustdb
gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found
gpg: Good signature from "MySQL Release Engineering <mysql-build@oss.oracle.com>"
gpg: WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature!
gpg:          There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner.
Primary key fingerprint: A4A9 4068 76FC BD3C 4567  70C8 8C71 8D3B 5072 E1F5

That is normal, as they depend on your setup and configuration. Here are explanations for these warnings:

  • gpg: no ultimately trusted keys found: This means that the specific key is not "ultimately trusted" by you or your web of trust, which is okay for the purposes of verifying file signatures.

  • WARNING: This key is not certified with a trusted signature! There is no indication that the signature belongs to the owner.: This refers to your level of trust in your belief that you possess our real public key. This is a personal decision. Ideally, a MySQL developer would hand you the key in person, but more commonly, you downloaded it. Was the download tampered with? Probably not, but this decision is up to you. Setting up a web of trust is one method for trusting them.

See the GPG documentation for more information on how to work with public keys.

2.1.4.3. Signature Checking Using Gpg4win for Windows

The Section 2.1.4.2, “Signature Checking Using GnuPG” section describes how to verify MySQL downloads using GPG. That guide also applies to Microsoft Windows, but another option is to use a GUI tool like Gpg4win. You may use a different tool but our examples are based on Gpg4win, and utilize its bundled Kleopatra GUI.

Download and install Gpg4win, and then load Kleopatra. The dialog should look similar to:

Figure 2.1. Initial screen after loading Kleopatra

Initial screen after loading Kleopatra

Next, add the MySQL Release Engineering certificate. Do this by clicking File, Lookup Certificates on Server. Type "Mysql Release Engineering" into the search box and press Search.

Figure 2.2. Finding the MySQL Release Engineering certificate

Finding the MySQL Release Engineering certificate

Select the "MySQL Release Engineering" certificate. The Fingerprint and Key-ID must be "5072E1F5", or choose Details... to confirm the certificate is valid. Now, import it by clicking Import. An import dialog will be displayed, choose Okay, and this certificate will now be listed under the Imported Certificates tab.

Next, configure the trust level for our certificate. Select our certificate, then from the main menu select Certificates, Change Owner Trust.... We suggest choosing I believe checks are very accurate for our certificate, as otherwise you might not be able to verify our signature. Select I believe checks are very accurate and then press OK.

Figure 2.3. Changing the Trust level

Changing the Trust level

Next, verify the downloaded MySQL package file. This requires files for both the packaged file, and the signature. The signature file must have the same name as the packaged file but with an appended .asc extension, as shown by the example in the following table. The signature is linked to on the downloads page for each MySQL product. You must create the .asc file with this signature.

Table 2.2. MySQL Package and Signature Files for MySQL Installer for Microsoft Windows

File TypeFile Name
Distribution filemysql-installer-community-5.6.15.msi
Signature filemysql-installer-community-5.6.15.msi.asc

Make sure that both files are stored in the same directory and then run the following command to verify the signature for the distribution file. Either drag and drop the signature (.asc) file into Kleopatra, or load the dialog from File, Decrypt/Verify Files..., and then choose either the .msi or .asc file.

Figure 2.4. The Decrypt/Verify Files dialog

The Decrypt/Verify Files dialog

Click Decrypt/Verify to check the file. The two most common results will look like the following, and although the yellow warning looks problematic, the following means that the file check passed with success. You may now run this installer.

Figure 2.5. The Decrypt/Verify Results: Good

The Decrypt/Verify Results: Good

Seeing a red "The signature is bad" error means the file is invalid. Do not execute the MSI file if you see this error.

Figure 2.6. The Decrypt/Verify Results: Bad

The Decrypt/Verify Results: Bad

The Section 2.1.4.2, “Signature Checking Using GnuPG” section explains why you probably don't see a green Good signature result.

2.1.4.4. Signature Checking Using RPM

For RPM packages, there is no separate signature. RPM packages have a built-in GPG signature and MD5 checksum. You can verify a package by running the following command:

shell> rpm --checksig package_name.rpm

Example:

shell> rpm --checksig MySQL-server-5.6.15-0.glibc23.i386.rpm
MySQL-server-5.6.15-0.glibc23.i386.rpm: md5 gpg OK
Note

If you are using RPM 4.1 and it complains about (GPG) NOT OK (MISSING KEYS: GPG#5072e1f5), even though you have imported the MySQL public build key into your own GPG keyring, you need to import the key into the RPM keyring first. RPM 4.1 no longer uses your personal GPG keyring (or GPG itself). Rather, RPM maintains a separate keyring because it is a system-wide application and a user's GPG public keyring is a user-specific file. To import the MySQL public key into the RPM keyring, first obtain the key, then use rpm --import to import the key. For example:

shell> gpg --export -a 5072e1f5 > 5072e1f5.asc
shell> rpm --import 5072e1f5.asc

Alternatively, rpm also supports loading the key directly from a URL, and you can use this manual page:

shell> rpm --import http://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.6/en/checking-gpg-signature.html

If you need to obtain the MySQL public key, see Section 2.1.4.2, “Signature Checking Using GnuPG”.

2.1.5. Installation Layouts

The installation layout differs for different installation types (for example, native packages, binary tarballs, and source tarballs), which can lead to confusion when managing different systems or using different installation sources. The individual layouts are given in the corresponding installation type or platform chapter, as described following. Note that the layout of installations from vendors other than Oracle may differ from these layouts.

2.1.6. Compiler-Specific Build Characteristics

In some cases, the compiler used to build MySQL affects the features available for use. The notes in this section apply for binary distributions provided by Oracle Corporation or that you compile yourself from source.

icc (Intel C++ Compiler) Builds

A server built with icc has these characteristics:

  • SSL support is not included.

2.2. Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries

Oracle provides a set of binary distributions of MySQL. These include binary distributions in the form of compressed tar files (files with a .tar.gz extension) for a number of platforms, as well as binaries in platform-specific package formats for selected platforms.

This section covers the installation of MySQL from a compressed tar file binary distribution. For other platform-specific package formats, see the other platform-specific sections. For example, for Windows distributions, see Section 2.3, “Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows”.

To obtain MySQL, see Section 2.1.3, “How to Get MySQL”.

MySQL compressed tar file binary distributions have names of the form mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz, where VERSION is a number (for example, 5.6.15), and OS indicates the type of operating system for which the distribution is intended (for example, pc-linux-i686 or winx64).

To install MySQL from a compressed tar file binary distribution, your system must have GNU gunzip to uncompress the distribution and a reasonable tar to unpack it. If your tar program supports the z option, it can both uncompress and unpack the file.

GNU tar is known to work. The standard tar provided with some operating systems is not able to unpack the long file names in the MySQL distribution. You should download and install GNU tar, or if available, use a preinstalled version of GNU tar. Usually this is available as gnutar, gtar, or as tar within a GNU or Free Software directory, such as /usr/sfw/bin or /usr/local/bin. GNU tar is available from http://www.gnu.org/software/tar/.

Warning

If you have previously installed MySQL using your operating system native package management system, such as yum or apt-get, you may experience problems installing using a native binary. Make sure your previous MySQL previous installation has been removed entirely (using your package management system), and that any additional files, such as old versions of your data files, have also been removed. You should also check the existence of configuration files such as /etc/my.cnf or the /etc/mysql directory have been deleted.

If you run into problems and need to file a bug report, please use the instructions in Section 1.7, “How to Report Bugs or Problems”.

On Unix, to install a compressed tar file binary distribution, unpack it at the installation location you choose (typically /usr/local/mysql). This creates the directories shown in the following table.

Table 2.3. MySQL Installation Layout for Generic Unix/Linux Binary Package

DirectoryContents of Directory
binClient programs and the mysqld server
dataLog files, databases
docsManual in Info format
manUnix manual pages
includeInclude (header) files
libLibraries
scriptsmysql_install_db
shareMiscellaneous support files, including error messages, sample configuration files, SQL for database installation
sql-benchBenchmarks

Debug versions of the mysqld binary are available as mysqld-debug. To compile your own debug version of MySQL from a source distribution, use the appropriate configuration options to enable debugging support. For more information on compiling from source, see Section 2.9, “Installing MySQL from Source”.

To install and use a MySQL binary distribution, the basic command sequence looks like this:

shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -r -g mysql mysql
shell> cd /usr/local
shell> tar zxvf /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz
shell> ln -s full-path-to-mysql-VERSION-OS mysql
shell> cd mysql
shell> chown -R mysql .
shell> chgrp -R mysql .
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
shell> chown -R root .
shell> chown -R mysql data
shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
# Next command is optional
shell> cp support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql.server

mysql_install_db creates a default option file named my.cnf in the base installation directory. This file is created from a template included in the distribution package named my-default.cnf. For more information, see Section 5.1.2.2, “Using a Sample Default Server Configuration File”.

A more detailed version of the preceding description for installing a binary distribution follows.

Note

This procedure assumes that you have root (administrator) access to your system. Alternatively, you can prefix each command using the sudo (Linux) or pfexec (OpenSolaris) command.

The procedure does not set up any passwords for MySQL accounts. After following the procedure, proceed to Section 2.10.2, “Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts”.

Create a mysql User and Group

If your system does not already have a user and group for mysqld to run as, you may need to create one. The following commands add the mysql group and the mysql user. You might want to call the user and group something else instead of mysql. If so, substitute the appropriate name in the following instructions. The syntax for useradd and groupadd may differ slightly on different versions of Unix, or they may have different names such as adduser and addgroup.

shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -r -g mysql mysql
Note

Because the user is required only for ownership purposes, not login purposes, the useradd command uses the -r option to create a user that does not have login permissions to your server host. Omit this option to permit logins for the user (or if your useradd does not support the option).

Obtain and Unpack the Distribution

Pick the directory under which you want to unpack the distribution and change location into it. The example here unpacks the distribution under /usr/local. The instructions, therefore, assume that you have permission to create files and directories in /usr/local. If that directory is protected, you must perform the installation as root.

shell> cd /usr/local

Obtain a distribution file using the instructions in Section 2.1.3, “How to Get MySQL”. For a given release, binary distributions for all platforms are built from the same MySQL source distribution.

Unpack the distribution, which creates the installation directory. Then create a symbolic link to that directory. tar can uncompress and unpack the distribution if it has z option support:

shell> tar zxvf /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz
shell> ln -s full-path-to-mysql-VERSION-OS mysql

The tar command creates a directory named mysql-VERSION-OS. The ln command makes a symbolic link to that directory. This enables you to refer more easily to the installation directory as /usr/local/mysql.

If your tar does not have z option support, use gunzip to unpack the distribution and tar to unpack it. Replace the preceding tar command with the following alternative command to uncompress and extract the distribution:

shell> gunzip < /path/to/mysql-VERSION-OS.tar.gz | tar xvf -

Perform Postinstallation Setup

The remainder of the installation process involves setting up the configuration file, creating the core databases, and starting the MySQL server. For next steps, see Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”.

Note

The accounts that are listed in the MySQL grant tables initially have no passwords. After starting the server, you should set up passwords for them using the instructions in Section 2.10.2, “Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts”.

2.3. Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows

MySQL for Microsoft Windows is available in a number of different forms. A Microsoft Windows operating system such as Windows Vista, Windows 7, Windows 8, Windows Server 2008, or Windows Server 2012. Both 32-bit and 64-bit versions are supported. For supported platform information, see http://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/database.html.

In addition to running MySQL as a standard application, you can also run the MySQL server as a Windows service. By using a service you can monitor and control the operation of the server through the standard Windows service management tools. For more information, see Section 2.3.5.7, “Starting MySQL as a Windows Service”.

Generally, you should install MySQL on Windows using an account that has administrator rights. Otherwise, you may encounter problems with certain operations such as editing the PATH environment variable or accessing the Service Control Manager. Once installed, MySQL does not need to be executed using a user with Administrator privileges.

For a list of limitations within the Windows version of MySQL, see Section E.10.6, “Windows Platform Limitations”.

In addition to the MySQL Server package, you may need or want additional components to use MySQL with your application or development environment. These include, but are not limited to:

  • If you plan to connect to the MySQL server using ODBC, you need a Connector/ODBC driver. For more information, including installation and configuration instructions, see Section 22.1, “MySQL Connector/ODBC”. But note that MySQL Installer will install and configure Connector/ODBC for you.

  • If you plan to use MySQL server with .NET applications, you need the Connector/Net driver. For more information, including installation and configuration instructions, see Section 22.2, “MySQL Connector/Net”. But note that MySQL Installer will install and configure Connector/NET for you.

MySQL distributions for Windows can be downloaded from http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/. See Section 2.1.3, “How to Get MySQL”.

MySQL for Windows is available in several distribution formats, detailed below. Generally speaking, you should use MySQL Installer. It is simpler to use than the ZIP file, and you need no additional tools to get MySQL up and running. MySQL Installer will automatically install MySQL Server, install additional MySQL products, create an options file, starts the server, and allow you to create default user accounts. For more information on choosing a package, see Section 2.3.2, “Choosing An Installation Package”.

MySQL on Windows considerations:

  • Large Table Support

    If you need tables with a size larger than 4GB, install MySQL on an NTFS or newer file system. Do not forget to use MAX_ROWS and AVG_ROW_LENGTH when you create tables. See Section 13.1.17, “CREATE TABLE Syntax”.

  • MySQL and Virus Checking Software

    Using virus scanning software such as Norton/Symantec Anti-Virus on directories containing MySQL data and temporary tables can cause issues, both in terms of the performance of MySQL and the virus-scanning software mis-identifying the contents of the files as containing spam. This is because of the fingerprinting mechanism used by the virus scanning software, and the way in which MySQL rapidly updates different files, which may be identified as a potential security risk.

    After installing MySQL Server, it is recommended that you disable virus scanning on the main directory (datadir) being used to store your MySQL table data. There is usually a system built into the virus scanning software to permit certain directories to be specifically ignored during virus scanning.

    In addition, by default, MySQL creates temporary files in the standard Windows temporary directory. To prevent the temporary files also being scanned, you should configure a separate temporary directory for MySQL temporary files and add this to the virus scanning exclusion list. To do this, add a configuration option for the tmpdir parameter to your my.ini configuration file. For more information, see Section 2.3.5.2, “Creating an Option File”.

2.3.1. MySQL Installation Layout on Microsoft Windows

For MySQL 5.6 on Windows, the default installation directory is C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6. Some Windows users prefer to install in C:\mysql, the directory that formerly was used as the default. However, the layout of the subdirectories remains the same.

All of the files are located within this parent directory, using the structure shown in the following table.

Table 2.4. Default MySQL Installation Layout for Microsoft Windows

DirectoryContents of DirectoryNotes
binClient programs and the mysqld server
%ALLUSERSPROFILE%\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6\Log files, databases (Windows XP, Windows Server 2003)The Windows system variable %ALLUSERSPROFILE% defaults to C:\Documents and Settings\All Users\Application Data
%PROGRAMDATA%\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6\Log files, databases (Vista, Windows 7, Windows Server 2008, and newer)The Windows system variable %PROGRAMDATA% defaults to C:\ProgramData
examplesExample programs and scripts
includeInclude (header) files
libLibraries
scriptsUtility scripts
shareMiscellaneous support files, including error messages, character set files, sample configuration files, SQL for database installation

If you install MySQL using the MySQL Installer, this package creates and sets up the data directory that the installed server will use, and also creates a pristine template data directory named data under the installation directory. After an installation has been performed using this package, the template data directory can be copied to set up additional MySQL instances. See Section 5.6, “Running Multiple MySQL Instances on One Machine”.

2.3.2. Choosing An Installation Package

For MySQL 5.6, there are installation package formats to choose from when installing MySQL on Windows:

  • MySQL Installer: This package has a file name similar to mysql-installer-community-5.6.15.0.msi or mysql-installer-commercial-5.6.15.0.msi, and utilizes MSI's to automatically install MySQL server and other products. It will download and apply updates to itself, and for each of the installed products. It also configures the additional non-server products.

    The installed products are configurable, and this includes: documentation with samples and examples, connectors (such as C, C++, J, NET, and ODBC), MySQL Workbench, MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows, MySQL for Excel, and the MySQL Server with its components.

    MySQL Installer will run on all Windows platforms that are supported by MySQL (see http://www.mysql.com/support/supportedplatforms/database.html). Note: because MySQL is not a native component of Windows and depends on .NET, it will not work on minimal installation options like the "Server Core" version of Windows Server 2008.

    For instructions on installing MySQL using MySQL Installer, see Section 2.3.3, “Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using MySQL Installer”.

  • The Noinstall Archive: This package has a file name similar to mysql-5.6.15-win32.zip or mysql-5.6.15-winx64.zip, and contains all the files found in the Complete install package, with the exception of the GUI. This package does not include an automated installer, and must be manually installed and configured.

Your choice of install package affects the installation process you must follow. If you choose to use MySQL Installer, see Section 2.3.3, “Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using MySQL Installer”. If you choose to install a Noinstall archive, see Section 2.3.5, “Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using a noinstall Zip Archive”.

2.3.3. Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using MySQL Installer

MySQL Installer is an application that simplifies the installation and updating process for a wide range of MySQL products, including MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows, MySQL Workbench, and MySQL for Excel. From this central application, you can see which MySQL products are already installed, configure them, and update or remove them if necessary. The installer can also install plugins, documentation, tutorials, and example databases. The MySQL Installer is only available for Microsoft Windows, and includes both a GUI and command-line interface.

Installer package types

  • Full: Bundles all of the MySQL products (including MySQL Server). The file is over 160MB, and have names of the form mysql-installer-community-VERSION.N.msi where VERSION is the MySQL Server version number such as 5.6 and N is the package number, which begins at 0.

  • Web: Only contains the Installer and configuration files, and it only downloads the MySQL products you choose to install. The file is about 2MB, and have names of the form mysql-installer-community-web-VERSION.N.msi where VERSION is the MySQL Server version number such as 5.6 and N is the package number, which begins at 0.

Installer editions

  • Community edition: Downloadable at http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/installer/. It installs the community edition of all MySQL products.

  • Commercial edition: Downloadable at either My Oracle Support (MOS) or https://edelivery.oracle.com/. It installs the commercial version of all MySQL products, including Workbench SE. It also integrates with your MOS account, so enter in your MOS credentials to automatically receive updates for your commercial MySQL products.

For release notes detailing the changes in each release of MySQL Installer, see MySQL Installer Release Notes.

MySQL Installer is compatible with pre-existing installations, and adds them to its list of installed components. And while the MySQL Installer is bundled with a specific version of MySQL Server, a single MySQL Installer instance can install and manage multiple MySQL Server versions. For example, a single MySQL Installer instance can install versions 5.1, 5.5, and 5.6. It can also manage either commercial or community editions of the MySQL Server.

Note

A single host can not have both community and commercial editions of MySQL Server installed. For example, if you want both MySQL Server 5.5 and 5.6 installed on a single host, then both must be the same commercial or community edition.

MySQL Installer handles the initial configuration and setup of the applications. For example:

  1. It will create MySQL Server connections in MySQL Workbench.

  2. It creates the configuration file (my.ini) that is used to configure the MySQL Server. The values written to this file are influenced by choices you make during the installation process.

  3. It imports example databases.

  4. It creates MySQL Server user accounts with configurable permissions based on general roles, such as DB Administrator, DB Designer, and Backup Admin. It optionally creates a Windows user named MysqlSys with limited privileges, which would then run the MySQL Server.

    This feature is only available during the initial installation of the MySQL Server, and not during future updates. User accounts may also be added with MySQL Workbench.

  5. If the "Advanced Configuration" option is checked, then the Logging Options are also configured. This includes defining file paths for the error log, general log, slow query log (including the configuration of seconds it requires to execute a query), and the binary log.

MySQL Installer can optionally check for updated components and download them for you automatically.

2.3.3.1. MySQL Installer GUI

After installation of the GUI version, the installer will have add its own Start Menu item under MySQL.

Note

Files that are generated by MySQL Installer grant full permissions to the user that executes MySQL Installer, including my.ini. This does not apply to files and directories for specific products such as the MySQL Server data directory in ProgramData, that is owned by SYSTEM.

After the installer itself has been installed and started, the following screen is displayed:

Figure 2.7. MySQL Installer - Welcome Screen

MySQL Installer - Welcome Screen

There are three main options:

  1. Install MySQL Products - The Installation Wizard.

  2. About MySQL - Learn about MySQL products and features.

  3. Resources - Information to help install and configure MySQL.

To Install MySQL Products after executing MySQL Installer for the first time, you must accept the license agreement before proceeding with the installation process.

Figure 2.8. MySQL Installer - License Agreement

MySQL Installer - License Agreement

If you are connected to the Internet, then the Installer will search for the latest MySQL components and add them to the installation bundle. Click Connect to the Internet to complete this step, or otherwise check the Skip checkbox and then Continue.

Figure 2.9. MySQL Installer - Find latest products

MySQL Installer - Find latest products

If you chose "Connect to the Internet," the next page will show the progress of MySQL Installer's search for available updates. When the search is complete (or if you opted to skip the search), you will be taken to the Choose Setup Type page:

Figure 2.10. MySQL Installer - Choosing a Setup Type

MySQL Installer - Choosing a Setup Type

Determine the option most compatible with your preferences by reading the Setup Type Description descriptions.

The Installation and Data paths are also defined here, and a caution flag will notify you if the data path you define already exists.

After you select a setup type, the MySQL Installer will check your system for the necessary external requirements and download then install missing components onto your system.

Figure 2.11. MySQL Installer - Check Requirements

MySQL Installer - Check Requirements

The next window lists the MySQL products that are scheduled to be installed:

Figure 2.12. MySQL Installer - Installation Progress

MySQL Installer - Installation Progress

As components are installed, you'll see their status change from "to be installed" to "install success."

Figure 2.13. MySQL Installer - Installation Progress status

MySQL Installer - Installation Progress status

After all components are installed, the next step involves configuring the products. The Configuration Overview window displays the progress and then loads a configuration window if it is required.

Figure 2.14. MySQL Installer - Configuration Overview

MySQL Installer - Configuration Overview

The ideal MySQL Server configuration depends on your intended use, as explained in the next window. Choose the description that most closely applies to your machine.

You may enable TCP/IP Networking here as otherwise only localhost connections are allowed.

Checking the "Advanced Configuration" option provides additional Logging Options to configure. This includes defining file paths for the error log, general log, slow query log (including the configuration of seconds it requires to execute a query), and the binary log.

Figure 2.15. MySQL Installer - MySQL Server Configuration: Define platform, networking, and logging options

MySQL Installer- MySQL Server Configuration: Define platform, networking, and logging options

Next, choose your account information. Defining a root password is required, whereas it's optional to create additional users. There are several different predefined user roles that each have different permission levels. For example, a "DB Admin" will have more privileges than a "DB Designer.".

Figure 2.16. MySQL Installer - MySQL Server Configuration: User accounts

MySQL Installer - MySQL Server Configuration: User accounts

Note

If the MySQL Server is already installed, then the Current Root Password will also be needed.

Next, configure the Windows Service Details. This includes the service name, how the MySQL Server should be loaded at startup, and how the Windows Service for MySQL Server will be run.

Figure 2.17. MySQL Installer - MySQL Server Configuration: Windows service details

MySQL Installer - MySQL Server Configuration: Windows service details

Note

When configuring Run Windows Services as ... using a Custom User, the custom user must have privileges to log on to Windows as a service. And the Next button will be disabled until this user is given these user rights.

On Microsoft Windows 7, this is configured by loading the Start Menu, Control Panel, Administrative Tools, Local Security Policy, Local Policies, User Rights Assignment, then Log On As A Service. Choose Add User or Group here to add the custom user, and then OK, OK to save.

The final configuration step is available if the Advanced Configuration option was checked, and it includes configuration options related to log file names:

Figure 2.18. MySQL Installer - MySQL Server Configuration: Logging options

MySQL Installer - MySQL Server Configuration: Logging options

After the MySQL Installer configuration process is completed, you may save the installation log, and then load MySQL Workbench if the Start MySQL Workbench after Setup option is checked:

Figure 2.19. MySQL Installer - Installation Complete

MySQL Installer - Installation Complete

You can now open MySQL Installer from the Microsoft Windows Start menu under the MySQL group, which will load the MySQL Installer Maintenance Screen. This is used to add, update, and remove features.

Figure 2.20. MySQL Installer - Maintenance Screen

MySQL Installer - Maintenance Screen

Note

An Update Screen screen is shown if MySQL Installer is used on a machine with older products installed, as opposed to the Maintenance Screen shown above. However, the functionality remains the same.

Add/Modify Products and Features will list all installed and available MySQL products.

Figure 2.21. MySQL Installer - Add/Modify Products and Features

MySQL Installer - Add/Modify Products and Features

The installation is now complete. MySQL Server should be running, and most MySQL products installed and available for use.

See also the MySQL Workbench documentation (http://dev.mysql.com/doc/workbench/en/).

2.3.3.2. MySQL Installer Console

MySQLInstallerConsole provides functionality similar to the GUI version of MySQL Installer, but from the command-line. It is installed when MySQL Installer is initially executed, and then available within the MySQL Installer directory. Typically that is in C:\Program Files (x86)\MySQL\MySQL Installer\, and the console must be executed with administrative privileges.

To use, invoke the Command Prompt with administrative privileges by choosing Start, Accessories, then right-click on Command Prompt and choose Run as administrator. And from the command-line, optionally change the directory to where MySQLInstallerConsole is located:

C:\> cd "C:\Program Files (x86)\MySQL\MySQL Installer"

MySQLInstallerConsole supports the following options, which are specified on the command line:

  • --help, -h, or -?

    Displays a help message with usage examples, and then exits.

    C:\> MySQLInstallerConsole --help
  • --updates (or -u)

    Checks for new products before any further action is taken. Disabled by default.

  • --nowait

    Skips the final pause when the program finishes. Otherwise, a "Press Enter to continue." dialogue is generated. It is used in conjunction with other options.

  • --catalog=catalog_name (or -c)

    Sets the default catalog. Use --list to view a list of available catalogs.

  • --type=installation_type (or -t)

    Sets the installation type.

    The possible values for installation_type are: developer, server, client, full, and custom.

  • --action=action_name

    The action being performed.

    The possible values are: install, remove, upgrade, list, and status.

    • install: Installs a product or products, as defined by --products

    • upgrade: Upgrades a product or products, as defined by --products.

    • remove: Removes a product or products, as defined by --products.

    • list: Lists the product manifest, both installed and available products.

    • status: Shows the status after another action is performed.

  • --product=product_name[:feature1],[feature2], [...] (or -p)

    Set the feature list of a product. Use --list to view available products, or pass in --product=* (an asterisk) to install all available products.

  • --config=product_name:passwd=root_password[;parameter1=value],[;parameter2=value], ...

    The configuration parameters for the most recently listed products.

  • --user=product_name:name=username,host:hostname,role=rolename,password=password or --user=product_name:name=username,host:hostname,role=rolename,tokens=tokens

    Creates a new user.

    Requires: name, host, role, and the password or tokens. Tokens are separated by pipe ("|") characters.

2.3.4. MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows

The MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows is a tool that enables you to monitor and adjust the status of your local and remote MySQL Server instances through an indicator that resides in the system tray. The MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows also gives quick access to several MySQL GUI tools (such as MySQL Workbench) through its context menu.

The MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows is installed by MySQL Installer, and (by default) will start-up when Microsoft Windows is started.

Note

To install, download and execute the MySQL Installer, be sure the MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows product is selected, then proceed with the installation. See the MySQL Installer manual for additional details.

For release notes detailing the changes in each release of MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows, see the MySQL Notifier Release Notes.

Visit the MySQL Notifier forum for additional MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows help and support.

Features include:

  • Start, Stop, and Restart instances of the MySQL Server.

  • Automatically detects (and adds) new MySQL Server services. These are listed under Manage Monitored Items, and may also be configured.

  • The Tray icon changes, depending on the status. It's green if all monitored MySQL Server instances are running, or red if at least one service is stopped. The Update MySQL Notifier tray icon based on service status option, which dictates this behavior, is enabled by default for each service.

  • Links to other applications like MySQL Workbench, MySQL Installer, and the MySQL Utilities. For example, choosing Configure Instance will load the MySQL Workbench Server Administration window for that particular instance.

  • If MySQL Workbench is also installed, then the Configure Instance and SQL Editor options are available for local (but not remote) MySQL instances.

  • Monitoring of both local and remote MySQL instances.

Note

Remote monitoring is available since MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows 1.1.0.

The MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows resides in the system tray and provides visual status information for your MySQL Server instances. A green icon is displayed at the top left corner of the tray icon if the current MySQL Server is running, or a red icon if the service is stopped.

The MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows automatically adds discovered MySQL Services on the local machine, and each service is saved and configurable. By default, the Automatically add new services whose name contains option is enabled and set to mysql. Related Notifications Options include being notified when new services are either discovered or experience status changes, and are also enabled by default. And uninstalling a service will also remove the service from the MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows.

Note

The Automatically add new services whose name contains option default changed from ".*mysqld.*" to "mysql" in Notifier 1.1.0.

Clicking the system tray icon will reveal several options, as seen in the screenshots below:

The Service Instance menu is the main MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows window, and enables you to Stop, Start, and Restart the MySQL Server.

Figure 2.22. MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Service Instance menu

MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Service Instance menu

The Actions menu includes several links to external applications (if they are installed), and a a Refresh Status option to manually refresh the status of all monitored services (in both local and remote computers) and MySQL instances.

Note

The main menu will not show the Actions menu when there are no services being monitored by MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows.

Note

The Refresh Status feature is available since MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows 1.1.0.

Figure 2.23. MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Actions menu

MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Actions menu

The Actions, Options menu configures MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows and includes options to:

  • Use colorful status icons: Enables a colorful style of icons for the tray of the MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows.

  • Run at Windows Startup: Allows the application to be loaded when Microsoft Windows starts.

  • Automatically Check For Updates Every # Weeks: Checks for a new version of MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows, and runs this check every # weeks.

  • Automatically add new services whose name contains: The text used to filter services and add them automatically to the monitored list of the local computer running MySQL Notifier, and on remote computers already monitoring Windows services. monitored services, and also filters the list of the Microsoft Windows services for the Add New Service dialog.

    Prior to version 1.1.0, this option was named "Automatically add new services that match this pattern."

  • Notify me when a service is automatically added: Will display a balloon notification from the taskbar when a newly discovered service is added to the monitored services list.

  • Notify me when a service changes status: Will display a balloon notification from the taskbar when a monitored service changes its status.

Figure 2.24. MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Options menu

MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Options menu

The Actions, Manage Monitored Items menu enables you to configure the monitored services and MySQL instances. First, with the Services tab open:

Figure 2.25. MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Manage Services menu

MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Manage Services menu

The Instances tab is similar:

Figure 2.26. MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Manage Instances menu

MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Manage Instances menu

Adding a service or instance (after clicking Add in the Manage Monitored Items window) enables you to select a running Microsoft Windows service or instance connection, and configure MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows to monitor it. Add a new service or instance by clicking service name from the list, then OK to accept. Multiple services and instances may be selected.

Figure 2.27. MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Adding new services

MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Adding new services

And instances:

Figure 2.28. MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Adding new instances

MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Adding new instances

Note

The Instances tab available since MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows 1.1.0.

2.3.4.1. Remote monitoring set up and installation instructions

The MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows uses Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) to manage and monitor services in remote computers running Windows XP or later. This guide explains how it works, and how to set up your system to monitor remote MySQL instances.

Note

Remote monitoring is available since MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows 1.1.0.

In order to configure WMI, it is important to understand that the underlying Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM) architecture is doing the WMI work. Specifically, MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows is using asynchronous notification queries on remote Microsoft Windows hosts as .NET events. These events send an asynchronous callback to the computer running the MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows so it knows when a service status has changed on the remote computer. Asynchronous notifications offer the best performance compared to semi-synchronous notifications or synchronous notifications that use timers.

Asynchronous notifications requires the remote computer to send a callback to the client computer (thus opening a reverse connection), so the Windows Firewall and DCOM settings must be properly configured for the communication to function properly.

Figure 2.29. MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM)

MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM)

Most of the common errors thrown by asynchronous WMI notifications are related to Windows Firewall blocking the communication, or to DCOM / WMI settings not being set up properly. For a list of common errors with solutions, see Section 2.3.4.1, “ Common Errors ”.

The following steps are required to make WMI function. These steps are divided between two machines. A single host computer that runs MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows (Computer A), and multiple remote machines that are being monitored (Computer B).

Computer running MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows (Computer A)
  1. Allow for remote administration by either editing the Group Policy Editor, or using NETSH:

    Using the Group Policy Editor:

    1. Click Start, click Run, type GPEDIT.MSC, and then click OK.

    2. Under the Local Computer Policy heading, double-click Computer Configuration.

    3. Double-click Administrative Templates, then Network, Network Connections, and then Windows Firewall.

    4. If the computer is in the domain, then double-click Domain Profile; otherwise, double-click Standard Profile.

    5. Click Windows Firewall: Allow inbound remote administration exception.

    6. On the Action menu either select Edit, or double-click the selection from the previous step.

    7. Check the Enabled radio button, and then click OK.

    Using the NETSH command:

    1. Open a command prompt window with Administrative rights (you can right-click the Command Prompt icon and click Run as Administrator).

    2. Execute the following command:

      NETSH firewall set service RemoteAdmin enable
  2. Open the DCOM port TCP 135:

    1. Open a command prompt window with Administrative rights (you can right-click the Command Prompt icon and click Run as Administrator) .

    2. Execute the following command:

      NETSH firewall add portopening protocol=tcp port=135 name=DCOM_TCP135
  3. Add the client application which contains the sink for the callback (MySqlNotifier.exe) to the Windows Firewall Exceptions List (use either the Windows Firewall configuration or NETSH):

    Using the Windows Firewall configuration:

    1. In the Control Panel, double-click Windows Firewall.

    2. In the Windows Firewall window's left panel, click Allow a program or feature through Windows Firewall.

    3. In the Allowed Programs window, click Change Settings.

    4. If MySqlNotifier.exe is in the Allowed programs and features list, make sure it is checked for the type of networks the computer connects to (Private, Public or both).

    5. If MySqlNotifier.exe is not in the list, click Allow another program....

    6. In the Add a Program window, select the MySqlNotifier.exe if it exists in the Programs list, otherwise click Browse... and go to the directory where MySqlNotifier.exe was installed to select it, then click Add.

    7. Make sure MySqlNotifier.exe is checked for the type of networks the computer connects to (Private, Public or both).

    Using the NETSH command:

    1. Open a command prompt window with Administrative rights (you can right-click the Command Prompt icon and click Run as Administrator).

    2. Execute the following command, where you change "[YOUR_INSTALL_DIRECTORY]":

      NETSH firewall add allowedprogram program=[YOUR_INSTALL_DIRECTORY]\MySqlNotifier.exe name=MySqlNotifier
  4. If Computer B is either a member of WORKGROUP or is in a different domain that is untrusted by Computer A, then the callback connection (Connection 2) is created as an Anonymous connection. To grant Anonymous connections DCOM Remote Access permissions:

    1. Click Start, click Run, type DCOMCNFG, and then click OK.

    2. In the Component Services dialog box, expand Component Services, expand Computers, and then right-click My Computer and click Properties.

    3. In the My Computer Properties dialog box, click the COM Security tab.

    4. Under Access Permissions, click Edit Limits.

    5. In the Access Permission dialog box, select ANONYMOUS LOGON name in the Group or user names box. In the Allow column under Permissions for User, select Remote Access, and then click OK.

Monitored Remote Computer (Computer B)

If the user account that is logged into the computer running the MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows (Computer A) is a local administrator on the remote computer (Computer B), such that the same account is an administrator on Computer B, you can skip to the "Allow for remote administration" step.

Setting DCOM security to allow a non-administrator user to access a computer remotely:

  1. Grant "DCOM remote launch" and activation permissions for a user or group:

    1. Click Start, click Run, type DCOMCNFG, and then click OK.

    2. In the Component Services dialog box, expand Component Services, expand Computers, and then right-click My Computer and click Properties.

    3. In the My Computer Properties dialog box, click the COM Security tab.

    4. Under Access Permissions, click Edit Limits.

    5. In the Launch Permission dialog box, follow these steps if your name or your group does not appear in the Groups or user names list:

      1. In the Launch Permission dialog box, click Add.

      2. In the Select Users, Computers, or Groups dialog box, add your name and the group in the "Enter the object names to select" box, and then click OK.

    6. In the Launch Permission dialog box, select your user and group in the Group or user names box. In the Allow column under Permissions for User, select Remote Launch, select Remote Activation, and then click OK.

    Grant DCOM remote access permissions:

    1. Click Start, click Run, type DCOMCNFG, and then click OK.

    2. In the Component Services dialog box, expand Component Services, expand Computers, and then right-click My Computer and click Properties.

    3. In the My Computer Properties dialog box, click the COM Security tab.

    4. Under Access Permissions, click Edit Limits.

    5. In the Access Permission dialog box, select ANONYMOUS LOGON name in the Group or user names box. In the Allow column under Permissions for User, select Remote Access, and then click OK.

  2. Allowing non-administrator users access to a specific WMI namespace:

    1. In the Control Panel, double-click Administrative Tools.

    2. In the Administrative Tools window, double-click Computer Management.

    3. In the Computer Management window, expand the Services and Applications tree and double-click the WMI Control.

    4. Right-click the WMI Control icon and select Properties.

    5. In the WMI Control Properties window, click the Security tab.

    6. In the Security tab, select the namespace and click Security.

    7. Locate the appropriate account and check Remote Enable in the Permissions list.

  3. Allow for remote administration by either editing the Group Policy Editor or using NETSH:

    Using the Group Policy Editor:

    1. Click Start, click Run, type GPEDIT.MSC, and then click OK.

    2. Under the Local Computer Policy heading, double-click Computer Configuration.

    3. Double-click Administrative Templates, then Network, Network Connections, and then Windows Firewall.

    4. If the computer is in the domain, then double-click Domain Profile; otherwise, double-click Standard Profile.

    5. Click Windows Firewall: Allow inbound remote administration exception.

    6. On the Action menu either select Edit, or double-click the selection from the previous step.

    7. Check the Enabled radio button, and then click OK.

    Using the NETSH command:

    1. Open a command prompt window with Administrative rights (you can right-click the Command Prompt icon and click Run as Administrator).

    2. Execute the following command:

      NETSH firewall set service RemoteAdmin enable
  4. Now, be sure the user you are logging in with uses the Name value and not the Full Name value:

    1. In the Control Panel, double-click Administrative Tools.

    2. In the Administrative Tools window, double-click Computer Management.

    3. In the Computer Management window, expand the System Tools then Local Users and Groups.

    4. Click the Users node, and on the right side panel locate your user and make sure it uses the Name value to connect, and not the Full Name value.

  5. If the remote computer is running on Windows XP Professional, make sure that remote logins are not being forcefully changed to the guest account user (also known as ForceGuest), which is enabled by default on computers that are not attached to a domain.

    1. Click Start, click Run, type SECPOL.MSC, and then click OK.

    2. Under the Local Policies node, double-click Security Options.

    3. Select Network Access: Sharing and security model for local accounts and save.

Common Errors
  • 0x80070005

    • DCOM Security was not configured properly (see Computer B, the Setting DCOM security... step).

    • The remote computer (Computer B) is a member of WORKGROUP or is in a domain that is untrusted by the client computer (Computer A) (see Computer A, the Grant Anonymous connections DCOM Remote Access permissions step).

  • 0x8007000E

    • The remote computer (Computer B) is a member of WORKGROUP or is in a domain that is untrusted by the client computer (Computer A) (see Computer A, the Grant Anonymous connections DCOM Remote Access permissions step).

  • 0x80041003

    • Access to the remote WMI namespace was not configured properly (see Computer B, the Allowing non-administrator users access to a specific WMI namespace step).

  • 0x800706BA

    • The DCOM port is not open on the client computers (Computer A) firewall. See the Open the DCOM port TCP 135 step for Computer A.

    • The remote computer (Computer B) is inaccessible because its network location is set to Public. Make sure you can access it through the Windows Explorer.

2.3.5. Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using a noinstall Zip Archive

Users who are installing from the noinstall package can use the instructions in this section to manually install MySQL. The process for installing MySQL from a Zip archive is as follows:

  1. Extract the archive to the desired install directory

  2. Create an option file

  3. Choose a MySQL server type

  4. Start the MySQL server

  5. Secure the default user accounts

This process is described in the sections that follow.

2.3.5.1. Extracting the Install Archive

To install MySQL manually, do the following:

  1. If you are upgrading from a previous version please refer to Section 2.3.7, “Upgrading MySQL on Windows”, before beginning the upgrade process.

  2. Make sure that you are logged in as a user with administrator privileges.

  3. Choose an installation location. Traditionally, the MySQL server is installed in C:\mysql. The MySQL Installer installs MySQL under C:\Program Files\MySQL. If you do not install MySQL at C:\mysql, you must specify the path to the install directory during startup or in an option file. See Section 2.3.5.2, “Creating an Option File”.

  4. Extract the install archive to the chosen installation location using your preferred Zip archive tool. Some tools may extract the archive to a folder within your chosen installation location. If this occurs, you can move the contents of the subfolder into the chosen installation location.

2.3.5.2. Creating an Option File

If you need to specify startup options when you run the server, you can indicate them on the command line or place them in an option file. For options that are used every time the server starts, you may find it most convenient to use an option file to specify your MySQL configuration. This is particularly true under the following circumstances:

  • The installation or data directory locations are different from the default locations (C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6 and C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6\data).

  • You need to tune the server settings, such as memory, cache, or InnoDB configuration information.

When the MySQL server starts on Windows, it looks for option files in several locations, such as the Windows directory, C:\, and the MySQL installation directory (for the full list of locations, see Section 4.2.3.3, “Using Option Files”). The Windows directory typically is named something like C:\WINDOWS. You can determine its exact location from the value of the WINDIR environment variable using the following command:

C:\> echo %WINDIR%

MySQL looks for options in each location first in the my.ini file, and then in the my.cnf file. However, to avoid confusion, it is best if you use only one file. If your PC uses a boot loader where C: is not the boot drive, your only option is to use the my.ini file. Whichever option file you use, it must be a plain text file.

Note

When using the MySQL Installer to install MySQL Server, it will create the my.ini at the default location. And as of MySQL Server 5.5.27, the user running MySQL Installer is granted full permissions to this new my.ini.

In other words, be sure that the MySQL Server user has permission to read the my.ini file.

You can also make use of the example option files included with your MySQL distribution; see Section 5.1.2, “Server Configuration Defaults”.

An option file can be created and modified with any text editor, such as Notepad. For example, if MySQL is installed in E:\mysql and the data directory is in E:\mydata\data, you can create an option file containing a [mysqld] section to specify values for the basedir and datadir options:

[mysqld]
# set basedir to your installation path
basedir=E:/mysql
# set datadir to the location of your data directory
datadir=E:/mydata/data

Note that Windows path names are specified in option files using (forward) slashes rather than backslashes. If you do use backslashes, double them:

[mysqld]
# set basedir to your installation path
basedir=E:\\mysql
# set datadir to the location of your data directory
datadir=E:\\mydata\\data

The rules for use of backslash in option file values are given in Section 4.2.3.3, “Using Option Files”.

The data directory is located within the AppData directory for the user running MySQL.

If you would like to use a data directory in a different location, you should copy the entire contents of the data directory to the new location. For example, if you want to use E:\mydata as the data directory instead, you must do two things:

  1. Move the entire data directory and all of its contents from the default location (for example C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6\data) to E:\mydata.

  2. Use a --datadir option to specify the new data directory location each time you start the server.

2.3.5.3. Selecting a MySQL Server Type

The following table shows the available servers for Windows in MySQL 5.6.

BinaryDescription
mysqldOptimized binary with named-pipe support
mysqld-debugLike mysqld, but compiled with full debugging and automatic memory allocation checking

All of the preceding binaries are optimized for modern Intel processors, but should work on any Intel i386-class or higher processor.

Each of the servers in a distribution support the same set of storage engines. The SHOW ENGINES statement displays which engines a given server supports.

All Windows MySQL 5.6 servers have support for symbolic linking of database directories.

MySQL supports TCP/IP on all Windows platforms. MySQL servers on Windows support named pipes as indicated in the following list. However, the default is to use TCP/IP regardless of platform. (Named pipes are slower than TCP/IP in many Windows configurations.)

Named pipes are enabled only if you start the server with the --enable-named-pipe option. It is necessary to use this option explicitly because some users have experienced problems with shutting down the MySQL server when named pipes were used.

2.3.5.4. Starting the Server for the First Time

This section gives a general overview of starting the MySQL server. The following sections provide more specific information for starting the MySQL server from the command line or as a Windows service.

The information here applies primarily if you installed MySQL using the Noinstall version, or if you wish to configure and test MySQL manually rather than with the GUI tools.

Note

The MySQL server will automatically start after using the MySQL Installer, and the MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows GUI can be used to start/stop/restart at any time.

The examples in these sections assume that MySQL is installed under the default location of C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6. Adjust the path names shown in the examples if you have MySQL installed in a different location.

Clients have two options. They can use TCP/IP, or they can use a named pipe if the server supports named-pipe connections.

MySQL for Windows also supports shared-memory connections if the server is started with the --shared-memory option. Clients can connect through shared memory by using the --protocol=MEMORY option.

For information about which server binary to run, see Section 2.3.5.3, “Selecting a MySQL Server Type”.

Testing is best done from a command prompt in a console window (or DOS window). In this way you can have the server display status messages in the window where they are easy to see. If something is wrong with your configuration, these messages make it easier for you to identify and fix any problems.

To start the server, enter this command:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6\bin\mysqld" --console

For a server that includes InnoDB support, you should see the messages similar to those following as it starts (the path names and sizes may differ):

InnoDB: The first specified datafile c:\ibdata\ibdata1 did not exist:
InnoDB: a new database to be created!
InnoDB: Setting file c:\ibdata\ibdata1 size to 209715200
InnoDB: Database physically writes the file full: wait...
InnoDB: Log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile0 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile0 size to 31457280
InnoDB: Log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile1 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile1 size to 31457280
InnoDB: Log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile2 did not exist: new to be created
InnoDB: Setting log file c:\iblogs\ib_logfile2 size to 31457280
InnoDB: Doublewrite buffer not found: creating new
InnoDB: Doublewrite buffer created
InnoDB: creating foreign key constraint system tables
InnoDB: foreign key constraint system tables created
011024 10:58:25  InnoDB: Started

When the server finishes its startup sequence, you should see something like this, which indicates that the server is ready to service client connections:

mysqld: ready for connections
Version: '5.6.15'  socket: ''  port: 3306

The server continues to write to the console any further diagnostic output it produces. You can open a new console window in which to run client programs.

If you omit the --console option, the server writes diagnostic output to the error log in the data directory (C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6\data by default). The error log is the file with the .err extension, and may be set using the --log-error option.

Note

The accounts that are listed in the MySQL grant tables initially have no passwords. After starting the server, you should set up passwords for them using the instructions in Section 2.10.2, “Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts”.

2.3.5.5. Starting MySQL from the Windows Command Line

The MySQL server can be started manually from the command line. This can be done on any version of Windows.

Note

The MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows GUI can also be used to start/stop/restart the MySQL server.

To start the mysqld server from the command line, you should start a console window (or DOS window) and enter this command:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6\bin\mysqld"

The path to mysqld may vary depending on the install location of MySQL on your system.

You can stop the MySQL server by executing this command:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6\bin\mysqladmin" -u root shutdown
Note

If the MySQL root user account has a password, you need to invoke mysqladmin with the -p option and supply the password when prompted.

This command invokes the MySQL administrative utility mysqladmin to connect to the server and tell it to shut down. The command connects as the MySQL root user, which is the default administrative account in the MySQL grant system. Note that users in the MySQL grant system are wholly independent from any login users under Windows.

If mysqld doesn't start, check the error log to see whether the server wrote any messages there to indicate the cause of the problem. By default, the error log is located in the C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6\data directory. It is the file with a suffix of .err, or may be specified by passing in the --log-error option. Alternatively, you can try to start the server as mysqld --console; in this case, you may get some useful information on the screen that may help solve the problem.

The last option is to start mysqld with the --standalone and --debug options. In this case, mysqld writes a log file C:\mysqld.trace that should contain the reason why mysqld doesn't start. See Section 23.4.3, “The DBUG Package”.

Use mysqld --verbose --help to display all the options that mysqld supports.

2.3.5.6. Customizing the PATH for MySQL Tools

To make it easier to invoke MySQL programs, you can add the path name of the MySQL bin directory to your Windows system PATH environment variable:

  • On the Windows desktop, right-click the My Computer icon, and select Properties.

  • Next select the Advanced tab from the System Properties menu that appears, and click the Environment Variables button.

  • Under System Variables, select Path, and then click the Edit button. The Edit System Variable dialogue should appear.

  • Place your cursor at the end of the text appearing in the space marked Variable Value. (Use the End key to ensure that your cursor is positioned at the very end of the text in this space.) Then enter the complete path name of your MySQL bin directory (for example, C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6\bin)

    Note

    There must be a semicolon separating this path from any values present in this field.

    Dismiss this dialogue, and each dialogue in turn, by clicking OK until all of the dialogues that were opened have been dismissed. You should now be able to invoke any MySQL executable program by typing its name at the DOS prompt from any directory on the system, without having to supply the path. This includes the servers, the mysql client, and all MySQL command-line utilities such as mysqladmin and mysqldump.

    You should not add the MySQL bin directory to your Windows PATH if you are running multiple MySQL servers on the same machine.

Warning

You must exercise great care when editing your system PATH by hand; accidental deletion or modification of any portion of the existing PATH value can leave you with a malfunctioning or even unusable system.

2.3.5.7. Starting MySQL as a Windows Service

On Windows, the recommended way to run MySQL is to install it as a Windows service, so that MySQL starts and stops automatically when Windows starts and stops. A MySQL server installed as a service can also be controlled from the command line using NET commands, or with the graphical Services utility. Generally, to install MySQL as a Windows service you should be logged in using an account that has administrator rights.

Note

The MySQL Notifier for Microsoft Windows GUI can also be used to monitor the status of the MySQL service.

The Services utility (the Windows Service Control Manager) can be found in the Windows Control Panel (under Administrative Tools on Windows 2000, XP, Vista, and Server 2003). To avoid conflicts, it is advisable to close the Services utility while performing server installation or removal operations from the command line.

Installing the service

Before installing MySQL as a Windows service, you should first stop the current server if it is running by using the following command:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6\bin\mysqladmin"
          -u root shutdown
Note

If the MySQL root user account has a password, you need to invoke mysqladmin with the -p option and supply the password when prompted.

This command invokes the MySQL administrative utility mysqladmin to connect to the server and tell it to shut down. The command connects as the MySQL root user, which is the default administrative account in the MySQL grant system. Note that users in the MySQL grant system are wholly independent from any login users under Windows.

Install the server as a service using this command:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6\bin\mysqld" --install

The service-installation command does not start the server. Instructions for that are given later in this section.

To make it easier to invoke MySQL programs, you can add the path name of the MySQL bin directory to your Windows system PATH environment variable:

  • On the Windows desktop, right-click the My Computer icon, and select Properties.

  • Next select the Advanced tab from the System Properties menu that appears, and click the Environment Variables button.

  • Under System Variables, select Path, and then click the Edit button. The Edit System Variable dialogue should appear.

  • Place your cursor at the end of the text appearing in the space marked Variable Value. (Use the End key to ensure that your cursor is positioned at the very end of the text in this space.) Then enter the complete path name of your MySQL bin directory (for example, C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6\bin), Note that there should be a semicolon separating this path from any values present in this field. Dismiss this dialogue, and each dialogue in turn, by clicking OK until all of the dialogues that were opened have been dismissed. You should now be able to invoke any MySQL executable program by typing its name at the DOS prompt from any directory on the system, without having to supply the path. This includes the servers, the mysql client, and all MySQL command-line utilities such as mysqladmin and mysqldump.

    You should not add the MySQL bin directory to your Windows PATH if you are running multiple MySQL servers on the same machine.

Warning

You must exercise great care when editing your system PATH by hand; accidental deletion or modification of any portion of the existing PATH value can leave you with a malfunctioning or even unusable system.

The following additional arguments can be used when installing the service:

  • You can specify a service name immediately following the --install option. The default service name is MySQL.

  • If a service name is given, it can be followed by a single option. By convention, this should be --defaults-file=file_name to specify the name of an option file from which the server should read options when it starts.

    The use of a single option other than --defaults-file is possible but discouraged. --defaults-file is more flexible because it enables you to specify multiple startup options for the server by placing them in the named option file.

  • You can also specify a --local-service option following the service name. This causes the server to run using the LocalService Windows account that has limited system privileges. This account is available only for Windows XP or newer. If both --defaults-file and --local-service are given following the service name, they can be in any order.

For a MySQL server that is installed as a Windows service, the following rules determine the service name and option files that the server uses:

  • If the service-installation command specifies no service name or the default service name (MySQL) following the --install option, the server uses the a service name of MySQL and reads options from the [mysqld] group in the standard option files.

  • If the service-installation command specifies a service name other than MySQL following the --install option, the server uses that service name. It reads options from the [mysqld] group and the group that has the same name as the service in the standard option files. This enables you to use the [mysqld] group for options that should be used by all MySQL services, and an option group with the service name for use by the server installed with that service name.

  • If the service-installation command specifies a --defaults-file option after the service name, the server reads options the same way as described in the previous item, except that it reads options only from the the named file and ignores the standard option files.

As a more complex example, consider the following command:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6\bin\mysqld"
          --install MySQL --defaults-file=C:\my-opts.cnf

Here, the default service name (MySQL) is given after the --install option. If no --defaults-file option had been given, this command would have the effect of causing the server to read the [mysqld] group from the standard option files. However, because the --defaults-file option is present, the server reads options from the [mysqld] option group, and only from the named file.

Note

On Windows, if the server is started with the --defaults-file and --install options, --install must be first. Otherwise, mysqld.exe will attempt to start the MySQL server.

You can also specify options as Start parameters in the Windows Services utility before you start the MySQL service.

Starting the service

Once a MySQL server has been installed as a service, Windows starts the service automatically whenever Windows starts. The service also can be started immediately from the Services utility, or by using a NET START MySQL command. The NET command is not case sensitive.

When run as a service, mysqld has no access to a console window, so no messages can be seen there. If mysqld does not start, check the error log to see whether the server wrote any messages there to indicate the cause of the problem. The error log is located in the MySQL data directory (for example, C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6\data). It is the file with a suffix of .err.

When a MySQL server has been installed as a service, and the service is running, Windows stops the service automatically when Windows shuts down. The server also can be stopped manually by using the Services utility, the NET STOP MySQL command, or the mysqladmin shutdown command.

You also have the choice of installing the server as a manual service if you do not wish for the service to be started automatically during the boot process. To do this, use the --install-manual option rather than the --install option:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6\bin\mysqld" --install-manual
Removing the service

To remove a server that is installed as a service, first stop it if it is running by executing NET STOP MySQL. Then use the --remove option to remove it:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6\bin\mysqld" --remove

If mysqld is not running as a service, you can start it from the command line. For instructions, see Section 2.3.5.5, “Starting MySQL from the Windows Command Line”.

If you encounter difficulties during installation. see Section 2.3.6, “Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows MySQL Server Installation”.

2.3.5.8. Testing The MySQL Installation

You can test whether the MySQL server is working by executing any of the following commands:

C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6\bin\mysqlshow"
C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6\bin\mysqlshow" -u root mysql
C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6\bin\mysqladmin" version status proc
C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6\bin\mysql" test

If mysqld is slow to respond to TCP/IP connections from client programs, there is probably a problem with your DNS. In this case, start mysqld with the --skip-name-resolve option and use only localhost and IP addresses in the Host column of the MySQL grant tables.

You can force a MySQL client to use a named-pipe connection rather than TCP/IP by specifying the --pipe or --protocol=PIPE option, or by specifying . (period) as the host name. Use the --socket option to specify the name of the pipe if you do not want to use the default pipe name.

Note that if you have set a password for the root account, deleted the anonymous account, or created a new user account, then you must use the appropriate -u and -p options with the commands shown above to connect with the MySQL Server. See Section 4.2.2, “Connecting to the MySQL Server”.

For more information about mysqlshow, see Section 4.5.6, “mysqlshow — Display Database, Table, and Column Information”.

2.3.6. Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows MySQL Server Installation

When installing and running MySQL for the first time, you may encounter certain errors that prevent the MySQL server from starting. This section helps you diagnose and correct some of these errors.

Your first resource when troubleshooting server issues is the error log. The MySQL server uses the error log to record information relevant to the error that prevents the server from starting. The error log is located in the data directory specified in your my.ini file. The default data directory location is C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6\data, or C:\ProgramData\Mysql on Windows 7 and Windows Server 2008. The C:\ProgramData directory is hidden by default. You need to change your folder options to see the directory and contents. For more information on the error log and understanding the content, see Section 5.2.2, “The Error Log”.

For information regarding possible errors, also consult the console messages displayed when the MySQL service is starting. Use the NET START MySQL command from the command line after installing mysqld as a service to see any error messages regarding the starting of the MySQL server as a service. See Section 2.3.5.7, “Starting MySQL as a Windows Service”.

The following examples show other common error messages you might encounter when installing MySQL and starting the server for the first time:

  • If the MySQL server cannot find the mysql privileges database or other critical files, it displays these messages:

    System error 1067 has occurred.
    Fatal error: Can't open and lock privilege tables:
    Table 'mysql.user' doesn't exist

    These messages often occur when the MySQL base or data directories are installed in different locations than the default locations (C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6 and C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6\data, respectively).

    This situation can occur when MySQL is upgraded and installed to a new location, but the configuration file is not updated to reflect the new location. In addition, old and new configuration files might conflict. Be sure to delete or rename any old configuration files when upgrading MySQL.

    If you have installed MySQL to a directory other than C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6, ensure that the MySQL server is aware of this through the use of a configuration (my.ini) file. Put the my.ini file in your Windows directory, typically C:\WINDOWS. To determine its exact location from the value of the WINDIR environment variable, issue the following command from the command prompt:

    C:\> echo %WINDIR%

    You can create or modify an option file with any text editor, such as Notepad. For example, if MySQL is installed in E:\mysql and the data directory is D:\MySQLdata, you can create the option file and set up a [mysqld] section to specify values for the basedir and datadir options:

    [mysqld]
    # set basedir to your installation path
    basedir=E:/mysql
    # set datadir to the location of your data directory
    datadir=D:/MySQLdata

    Note that Windows path names are specified in option files using (forward) slashes rather than backslashes. If you do use backslashes, double them:

    [mysqld]
    # set basedir to your installation path
    basedir=C:\\Program Files\\MySQL\\MySQL Server 5.6
    # set datadir to the location of your data directory
    datadir=D:\\MySQLdata

    The rules for use of backslash in option file values are given in Section 4.2.3.3, “Using Option Files”.

    If you change the datadir value in your MySQL configuration file, you must move the contents of the existing MySQL data directory before restarting the MySQL server.

    See Section 2.3.5.2, “Creating an Option File”.

  • If you reinstall or upgrade MySQL without first stopping and removing the existing MySQL service and install MySQL using the MySQL Installer, you might see this error:

    Error: Cannot create Windows service for MySql. Error: 0

    This occurs when the Configuration Wizard tries to install the service and finds an existing service with the same name.

    One solution to this problem is to choose a service name other than mysql when using the configuration wizard. This enables the new service to be installed correctly, but leaves the outdated service in place. Although this is harmless, it is best to remove old services that are no longer in use.

    To permanently remove the old mysql service, execute the following command as a user with administrative privileges, on the command line:

    C:\> sc delete mysql
    [SC] DeleteService SUCCESS

    If the sc utility is not available for your version of Windows, download the delsrv utility from http://www.microsoft.com/windows2000/techinfo/reskit/tools/existing/delsrv-o.asp and use the delsrv mysql syntax.

2.3.7. Upgrading MySQL on Windows

This section lists some of the steps to take when upgrading MySQL on Windows.

  1. Review Section 2.11.1, “Upgrading MySQL”, for additional information on upgrading MySQL that is not specific to Windows.

  2. Always back up your current MySQL installation before performing an upgrade. See Section 7.2, “Database Backup Methods”.

  3. Download the latest Windows distribution of MySQL from http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/.

  4. Before upgrading MySQL, stop the server. If the server is installed as a service, stop the service with the following command from the command prompt:

    C:\> NET STOP MySQL

    If you are not running the MySQL server as a service, use mysqladmin to stop it. For example, before upgrading from MySQL 5.5 to 5.6, use mysqladmin from MySQL 5.5 as follows:

    C:\> "C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.5\bin\mysqladmin" -u root shutdown
    Note

    If the MySQL root user account has a password, invoke mysqladmin with the -p option and supply the password when prompted.

  5. Before upgrading to MySQL 5.6 from a version previous to 4.1.5, or from a version of MySQL installed from a Zip archive to a version of MySQL installed with the MySQL Installation Wizard, you must first manually remove the previous installation and MySQL service (if the server is installed as a service).

    To remove the MySQL service, use the following command:

    C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqld --remove

    If you do not remove the existing service, the MySQL Installation Wizard may fail to properly install the new MySQL service.

  6. If you are using the MySQL Installer, start it as described in Section 2.3.3, “Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using MySQL Installer”.

  7. If you are installing MySQL from a Zip archive, extract the archive. You may either overwrite your existing MySQL installation (usually located at C:\mysql), or install it into a different directory, such as C:\mysql5. Overwriting the existing installation is recommended.

  8. If you were running MySQL as a Windows service and you had to remove the service earlier in this procedure, reinstall the service. (See Section 2.3.5.7, “Starting MySQL as a Windows Service”.)

  9. Restart the server. For example, use NET START MySQL if you run MySQL as a service, or invoke mysqld directly otherwise.

  10. As Administrator, run mysql_upgrade to check your tables, attempt to repair them if necessary, and update your grant tables if they have changed so that you can take advantage of any new capabilities. See Section 4.4.7, “mysql_upgrade — Check and Upgrade MySQL Tables”.

  11. If you encounter errors, see Section 2.3.6, “Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows MySQL Server Installation”.

2.3.8. Windows Postinstallation Procedures

GUI tools exist that perform most of the tasks described below, including:

On Windows, you need not create the data directory and the grant tables. MySQL Windows distributions include the grant tables with a set of preinitialized accounts in the mysql database under the data directory. Regarding passwords, if you installed MySQL using the MySQL Installer, you may have already assigned passwords to the accounts. (See Section 2.3.3, “Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using MySQL Installer”.) Otherwise, use the password-assignment procedure given in Section 2.10.2, “Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts”.

Before setting up passwords, you might want to try running some client programs to make sure that you can connect to the server and that it is operating properly. Make sure that the server is running (see Section 2.3.5.4, “Starting the Server for the First Time”), and then issue the following commands to verify that you can retrieve information from the server. You may need to specify directory different from C:\mysql\bin on the command line. If you used the MySQL Installer, the default directory is C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6, and the mysql and mysqlshow client programs are in C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6\bin. See Section 2.3.3, “Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using MySQL Installer”, for more information.

Use mysqlshow to see what databases exist:

C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqlshow
+--------------------+
|     Databases      |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| test               |
+--------------------+

The list of installed databases may vary, but will always include the minimum of mysql and information_schema. In most cases, the test database will also be installed automatically.

The preceding command (and commands for other MySQL programs such as mysql) may not work if the correct MySQL account does not exist. For example, the program may fail with an error, or you may not be able to view all databases. If you installed using MySQL Installer, then the root user will have been created automatically with the password you supplied. In this case, you should use the -u root and -p options. (You will also need to use the -u root and -p options if you have already secured the initial MySQL accounts.) With -p, you will be prompted for the root password. For example:

C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqlshow -u root -p
Enter password: (enter root password here)
+--------------------+
|     Databases      |
+--------------------+
| information_schema |
| mysql              |
| test               |
+--------------------+

If you specify a database name, mysqlshow displays a list of the tables within the database:

C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysqlshow mysql
Database: mysql
+---------------------------+
|          Tables           |
+---------------------------+
| columns_priv              |
| db                        |
| event                     |
| func                      |
| help_category             |
| help_keyword              |
| help_relation             |
| help_topic                |
| host                      |
| plugin                    |
| proc                      |
| procs_priv                |
| servers                   |
| tables_priv               |
| time_zone                 |
| time_zone_leap_second     |
| time_zone_name            |
| time_zone_transition      |
| time_zone_transition_type |
| user                      |
+---------------------------+

Use the mysql program to select information from a table in the mysql database:

C:\> C:\mysql\bin\mysql -e "SELECT Host,Db,User FROM mysql.db"
+------+--------+------+
| host | db     | user |
+------+--------+------+
| %    | test   |      |
| %    | test_% |      |
+------+--------+------+

For more information about mysqlshow and mysql, see Section 4.5.6, “mysqlshow — Display Database, Table, and Column Information”, and Section 4.5.1, “mysql — The MySQL Command-Line Tool”.

If you are running a version of Windows that supports services, you can set up the MySQL server to run automatically when Windows starts. See Section 2.3.5.7, “Starting MySQL as a Windows Service”.

2.4. Installing MySQL on Mac OS X

MySQL for Mac OS X is available in a number of different forms:

  • Native Package Installer format, which uses the native Mac OS X installer to walk you through the installation of MySQL. For more information, see Section 2.4.2, “Installing MySQL on Mac OS X Using Native Packages”. You can use the package installer with Mac OS X 10.3 and later, and the package is available for both PowerPC and Intel architectures, and 32-bit and 64-bit architectures. There is no Universal Binary available using the package installation method. The user you use to perform the installation must have administrator privileges.

  • Tar package format, which uses a file packaged using the Unix tar and gzip commands. To use this method, you will need to open a Terminal window. You do not need administrator privileges using this method, as you can install the MySQL server anywhere using this method. For more information on using this method, you can use the generic instructions for using a tarball, Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”.You can use the package installer with Mac OS X 10.3 and later, and available for both PowerPC and Intel architectures, and both 32-bit and 64-bit architectures. A Universal Binary, incorporating both Power PC and Intel architectures and 32-bit and 64-bit binaries is available.

    In addition to the core installation, the Package Installer also includes Section 2.4.3, “Installing the MySQL Startup Item” and Section 2.4.4, “Installing and Using the MySQL Preference Pane”, both of which simplify the management of your installation.

  • Mac OS X server includes a version of MySQL as standard. If you want to use a more recent version than that supplied with the Mac OS X server release, you can make use of the package or tar formats. For more information on using the MySQL bundled with Mac OS X, see Section 2.4.5, “Using the Bundled MySQL on Mac OS X Server”.

For additional information on using MySQL on Mac OS X, see Section 2.4.1, “General Notes on Installing MySQL on Mac OS X”.

2.4.1. General Notes on Installing MySQL on Mac OS X

You should keep the following issues and notes in mind:

  • The default location for the MySQL Unix socket is different on Mac OS X and Mac OS X Server depending on the installation type you chose. The following table shows the default locations by installation type.

    Table 2.5. MySQL Unix Socket Locations on Mac OS X by Installation Type

    Installation TypeSocket Location
    Package Installer from MySQL/tmp/mysql.sock
    Tarball from MySQL/tmp/mysql.sock
    MySQL Bundled with Mac OS X Server/var/mysql/mysql.sock

    To prevent issues, you should either change the configuration of the socket used within your application (for example, changing php.ini), or you should configure the socket location using a MySQL configuration file and the socket option. For more information, see Section 5.1.3, “Server Command Options”.

  • You may need (or want) to create a specific mysql user to own the MySQL directory and data. On Mac OS X 10.4 and lower you can do this by using the Netinfo Manager application, located within the Utilities folder within the Applications folder. On Mac OS X 10.5 and later you can do this through the Directory Utility. From Mac OS X 10.5 and later (including Mac OS X Server 10.5) the mysql should already exist. For use in single user mode, an entry for _mysql (note the underscore prefix) should already exist within the system /etc/passwd file.

  • Due to a bug in the Mac OS X package installer, you may see this error message in the destination disk selection dialog:

    You cannot install this software on this disk. (null)

    If this error occurs, click the Go Back button once to return to the previous screen. Then click Continue to advance to the destination disk selection again, and you should be able to choose the destination disk correctly. We have reported this bug to Apple and it is investigating this problem.

  • If you get an insecure startup item disabled error when MySQL launches, use the following procedure. Adjust the pathnames appropriately for your system.

    1. Modify the mysql.script using this command (enter it on a single line):

      shell> sudo /Applications/TextEdit.app/Contents/MacOS/TextEdit
        /usr/local/mysql/support-files/mysql.server
    2. Locate the option file that defines the basedir value and modify it to contain these lines:

      basedir=/usr/local/mysql
      datadir=/usr/local/mysql/data

      In the /Library/StartupItems/MySQLCOM/ directory, make the following group ID changes from staff to wheel:

      shell> sudo chgrp wheel MySQLCOM StartupParameters.plist
    3. Start the server from System Preferences or Terminal.app.

  • Because the MySQL package installer installs the MySQL contents into a version and platform specific directory, you can use this to upgrade and migrate your database between versions. You will need to either copy the data directory from the old version to the new version, or alternatively specify an alternative datadir value to set location of the data directory.

  • You might want to add aliases to your shell's resource file to make it easier to access commonly used programs such as mysql and mysqladmin from the command line. The syntax for bash is:

    alias mysql=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql
    alias mysqladmin=/usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin

    For tcsh, use:

    alias mysql /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysql
    alias mysqladmin /usr/local/mysql/bin/mysqladmin

    Even better, add /usr/local/mysql/bin to your PATH environment variable. You can do this by modifying the appropriate startup file for your shell. For more information, see Section 4.2.1, “Invoking MySQL Programs”.

  • After you have copied over the MySQL database files from the previous installation and have successfully started the new server, you should consider removing the old installation files to save disk space. Additionally, you should also remove older versions of the Package Receipt directories located in /Library/Receipts/mysql-VERSION.pkg.

2.4.2. Installing MySQL on Mac OS X Using Native Packages

You can install MySQL on Mac OS X 10.3.x (Panther) or newer using a Mac OS X binary package in DMG format instead of the binary tarball distribution. Please note that older versions of Mac OS X (for example, 10.1.x or 10.2.x) are not supported by this package.

The package is located inside a disk image (.dmg) file that you first need to mount by double-clicking its icon in the Finder. It should then mount the image and display its contents.

Note

Before proceeding with the installation, be sure to stop all running MySQL server instances by using either the MySQL Manager Application (on Mac OS X Server) or mysqladmin shutdown on the command line.

When installing from the package version, you should also install the MySQL Preference Pane, which will enable you to control the startup and execution of your MySQL server from System Preferences. For more information, see Section 2.4.4, “Installing and Using the MySQL Preference Pane”.

When installing using the package installer, the files are installed into a directory within /usr/local matching the name of the installation version and platform. For example, the installer file mysql-5.1.39-osx10.5-x86_64.pkg installs MySQL into /usr/local/mysql-5.1.39-osx10.5-x86_64 . The following table shows the layout of the installation directory.

Table 2.6. MySQL Installation Layout on Mac OS X

DirectoryContents of Directory
binClient programs and the mysqld server
dataLog files, databases
docsManual in Info format
includeInclude (header) files
libLibraries
manUnix manual pages
mysql-testMySQL test suite
scriptsmysql_install_db
shareMiscellaneous support files, including error messages, sample configuration files, SQL for database installation
sql-benchBenchmarks
support-filesScripts and sample configuration files
/tmp/mysql.sockLocation of the MySQL Unix socket

During the package installer process, a symbolic link from /usr/local/mysql to the version/platform specific directory created during installation will be created automatically.

  1. Download and open the MySQL package installer, which is provided on a disk image (.dmg) that includes the main MySQL installation package, the MySQLStartupItem.pkg installation package, and the MySQL.prefPane. Double-click the disk image to open it.

  2. Double-click the MySQL installer package. It will be named according to the version of MySQL you have downloaded. For example, if you have downloaded MySQL 5.1.39, double-click mysql-5.1.39-osx10.5-x86.pkg.

  3. You will be presented with the opening installer dialog. Click Continue to begin installation.

    MySQL Package Installer: Step 1
  4. A copy of the installation instructions and other important information relevant to this installation are displayed. Click Continue .

  5. If you have downloaded the community version of MySQL, you will be shown a copy of the relevant GNU General Public License. Click Continue .

  6. Select the drive you want to use to install the MySQL Startup Item. The drive must have a valid, bootable, Mac OS X operating system installed. Click Continue.

    MySQL Package Installer: Step 4
  7. You will be asked to confirm the details of the installation, including the space required for the installation. To change the drive on which the startup item is installed, click either Go Back or Change Install Location.... To install the startup item, click Install.

  8. Once the installation has been completed successfully, you will be shown an Install Succeeded message.

For convenience, you may also want to install the startup item and preference pane. See Section 2.4.3, “Installing the MySQL Startup Item”, and Section 2.4.4, “Installing and Using the MySQL Preference Pane”.

2.4.3. Installing the MySQL Startup Item

The MySQL Installation Package includes a startup item that can be used to automatically start and stop MySQL.

To install the MySQL Startup Item:

  1. Download and open the MySQL package installer, which is provided on a disk image (.dmg) that includes the main MySQL installation package, the MySQLStartupItem.pkg installation package, and the MySQL.prefPane. Double-click the disk image to open it.

  2. Double-click the MySQLStartItem.pkg file to start the installation process.

  3. You will be presented with the Install MySQL Startup Item dialog.

    MySQL Startup Item Installer: Step 1

    Click Continue to continue the installation process.

  4. A copy of the installation instructions and other important information relevant to this installation are displayed. Click Continue .

  5. Select the drive you want to use to install the MySQL Startup Item. The drive must have a valid, bootable, Mac OS X operating system installed. Click Continue.

    MySQL Startup Item Installer: Step 3
  6. You will be asked to confirm the details of the installation. To change the drive on which the startup item is installed, click either Go Back or Change Install Location.... To install the startup item, click Install.

  7. Once the installation has been completed successfully, you will be shown an Install Succeeded message.

    MySQL Startup Item Installer: Step 5

The Startup Item for MySQL is installed into /Library/StartupItems/MySQLCOM. The Startup Item installation adds a variable MYSQLCOM=-YES- to the system configuration file /etc/hostconfig. If you want to disable the automatic startup of MySQL, change this variable to MYSQLCOM=-NO-.

After the installation, you can start and stop MySQL by running the following commands in a terminal window. You must have administrator privileges to perform these tasks, and you may be prompted for your password.

If you have installed the Startup Item, use this command to start the server:

shell> sudo /Library/StartupItems/MySQLCOM/MySQLCOM start

If you have installed the Startup Item, use this command to stop the server:

shell> sudo /Library/StartupItems/MySQLCOM/MySQLCOM stop

2.4.4. Installing and Using the MySQL Preference Pane

The MySQL Package installer disk image also includes a custom MySQL Preference Pane that enables you to start, stop, and control automated startup during boot of your MySQL installation.

To install the MySQL Preference Pane:

  1. Download and open the MySQL package installer package, which is provided on a disk image (.dmg) that includes the main MySQL installation package, the MySQLStartupItem.pkg installation package, and the MySQL.prefPane. Double-click the disk image to open it.

  2. Double-click the MySQL.prefPane. The MySQL System Preferences will open.

  3. If this is the first time you have installed the preference pane, you will be asked to confirm installation and whether you want to install the preference pane for all users, or only the current user. To install the preference pane for all users you will need administrator privileges. If necessary, you will be prompted for the username and password for a user with administrator privileges.

  4. If you already have the MySQL Preference Pane installed, you will be asked to confirm whether you want to overwrite the existing MySQL Preference Pane.

Note

The MySQL Preference Pane only starts and stops MySQL installation installed from the MySQL package installation that have been installed in the default location.

Once the MySQL Preference Pane has been installed, you can control your MySQL server instance using the preference pane. To use the preference pane, open the System Preferences... from the Apple menu. Select the MySQL preference pane by clicking the MySQL logo within the Other section of the preference panes list.

MySQL Preference Pane

The MySQL Preference Pane shows the current status of the MySQL server, showing stopped (in red) if the server is not running and running (in green) if the server has already been started. The preference pane also shows the current setting for whether the MySQL server has been set to start automatically.

  • To start MySQL using the preference pane:

    Click Start MySQL Server. You may be prompted for the username and password of a user with administrator privileges to start the MySQL server.

  • To stop MySQL using the preference pane:

    Click Stop MySQL Server. You may be prompted for the username and password of a user with administrator privileges to stop the MySQL server.

  • To automatically start the MySQL server when the system boots:

    Check the check box next to Automatically Start MySQL Server on Startup.

  • To disable automatic MySQL server startup when the system boots:

    Uncheck the check box next to Automatically Start MySQL Server on Startup.

You can close the System Preferences... window once you have completed your settings.

2.4.5. Using the Bundled MySQL on Mac OS X Server

If you are running Mac OS X Server, a version of MySQL should already be installed. The following table shows the versions of MySQL that ship with Mac OS X Server versions.

Table 2.7. MySQL Versions Preinstalled with Mac OS X Server

Mac OS X Server VersionMySQL Version
10.2-10.2.23.23.51
10.2.3-10.2.63.23.53
10.34.0.14
10.3.24.0.16
10.4.04.1.10a
10.5.05.0.45
10.6.05.0.82

The following table shows the installation layout of MySQL on Mac OS X Server.

Table 2.8. MySQL Directory Layout for Preinstalled MySQL Installations on Mac OS X Server

DirectoryContents of Directory
/usr/binClient programs
/var/mysqlLog files, databases
/usr/libexecThe mysqld server
/usr/share/manUnix manual pages
/usr/share/mysql/mysql-testMySQL test suite
/usr/share/mysqlMiscellaneous support files, including error messages, character set files, sample configuration files, SQL for database installation
/var/mysql/mysql.sockLocation of the MySQL Unix socket

Additional Resources

2.5. Installing MySQL on Linux

Linux supports a number of different solutions for installing MySQL. The recommended method is to use one of the distributions from Oracle. If you choose this method, there are several options available:

As an alternative, you can use the native package manager within your Linux distribution to automatically download and install MySQL for you. Native package installations can take of the download and dependencies required to run MySQL, but the MySQL version will often be some versions behind the currently available release. You will also normally be unable to install development releases, as these are not usually made available in the native repository. For more information on using the native package installers, see Section 2.5.3, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using Native Package Managers”.

Note

For many Linux installations, you will want to set up MySQL to be started automatically when your machine starts. Many of the native package installations perform this operation for you, but for source, binary and RPM solutions you may need to set this up separately. The required script, mysql.server, can be found in the support-files directory under the MySQL installation directory or in a MySQL source tree. You can install it as /etc/init.d/mysql for automatic MySQL startup and shutdown. See Section 2.10.1.2, “Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically”.

2.5.1. Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages

Note

To install or upgrade to MySQL 5.6.11, be sure to read the special instructions at the end of this section.

The recommended way to install MySQL on RPM-based Linux distributions is by using the RPM packages. The RPMs that we provide to the community should work on all versions of Linux that support RPM packages and use glibc 2.3. To obtain RPM packages, see Section 2.1.3, “How to Get MySQL”.

For non-RPM Linux distributions, you can install MySQL using a .tar.gz package. See Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”.

Installations created from our Linux RPM distributions result in files under the system directories shown in the following table.

Table 2.9. MySQL Installation Layout for Linux RPM Packages

DirectoryContents of Directory
/usr/binClient programs and scripts
/usr/sbinThe mysqld server
/var/lib/mysqlLog files, databases
/usr/share/infoManual in Info format
/usr/share/manUnix manual pages
/usr/include/mysqlInclude (header) files
/usr/lib/mysqlLibraries
/usr/share/mysqlMiscellaneous support files, including error messages, character set files, sample configuration files, SQL for database installation
/usr/share/sql-benchBenchmarks

Note

RPM distributions of MySQL are also provided by other vendors. Be aware that they may differ from those built by us in features, capabilities, and conventions (including communication setup), and that the instructions in this manual do not necessarily apply to installing them. The vendor's instructions should be consulted instead. Because of these differences, RPM packages built by us check whether such RPMs built by other vendors are installed. If so, the RPM does not install and produces a message explaining this.

In most cases, you need to install only the MySQL-server and MySQL-client packages to get a functional MySQL installation. The other packages are not required for a standard installation.

As of MySQL 5.6.8, new RPM install operations (not upgrades) invoke mysql_install_db with the --random-passwords option that provides for more secure MySQL installation. Invoking mysql_install_db with --random-passwords causes it to assign a random password to the MySQL root accounts, set the password expired flag for those accounts, and remove the anonymous-user MySQL accounts. It will be necessary after installation to start the server, connect as root using the password written to the $HOME/.mysql_secret file, and assign a new root password. Until this is done, root cannot do anything else. This must be done for each root account you intend to use. To change the password, you can use the SET PASSWORD statement (for example, with the mysql client). You can also use mysqladmin or mysql_secure_installation. For additional details, see Section 4.4.3, “mysql_install_db — Initialize MySQL Data Directory”. (Install operations using RPMs for Unbreakable Linux Network are unaffected because they do not use mysql_install_db.)

RPMs for MySQL Cluster. Standard MySQL server RPMs built by MySQL do not provide support for the NDBCLUSTER storage engine.

Important

When upgrading a MySQL Cluster RPM installation, you must upgrade all installed RPMs, including the Server and Client RPMs.

For more information about installing MySQL Cluster from RPMs, see Section 17.2, “MySQL Cluster Installation”.

For upgrades, if your installation was originally produced by installing multiple RPM packages, it is best to upgrade all the packages, not just some. For example, if you previously installed the server and client RPMs, do not upgrade just the server RPM.

If you get a dependency failure when trying to install MySQL packages (for example, error: removing these packages would break dependencies: libmysqlclient.so.10 is needed by ...), you should also install the MySQL-shared-compat package, which includes the shared libraries for older releases for backward compatibility.

The RPM packages shown in the following list are available. The names shown here use a suffix of .glibc23.i386.rpm, but particular packages can have different suffixes, described later.

  • MySQL-server-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm

    The MySQL server. You need this unless you only want to connect to a MySQL server running on another machine.

  • MySQL-client-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm

    The standard MySQL client programs. You probably always want to install this package.

  • MySQL-devel-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm

    The libraries and include files that are needed if to compile other MySQL clients, such as the Perl modules. Install this RPM if you intend to compile C API applications.

  • MySQL-shared-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm

    This package contains the shared libraries (libmysqlclient.so*) that certain languages and applications need to dynamically load and use MySQL. It contains single-threaded and thread-safe libraries. Install this RPM if you intend to compile or run C API applications that depend on the shared client library.

  • MySQL-shared-compat-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm

    This package includes the shared libraries for older releases, but not the libraries for the current release. It contains single-threaded and thread-safe libraries. Install this package if you have applications installed that are dynamically linked against older versions of MySQL but you want to upgrade to the current version without breaking the library dependencies.

    As of MySQL 5.6.5, the MySQL-shared-compat RPM package enables users of Red Hat-provided mysql-*-5.1 RPM packages to migrate to Oracle-provided MySQL-*-5.5 packages. MySQL-shared-compat replaces the Red Hat mysql-libs package by replacing libmysqlclient.so files of the latter package, thus satisfying dependencies of other packages on mysql-libs. This change affects only users of Red Hat (or Red Hat-compatible) RPM packages. Nothing is different for users of Oracle RPM packages.

  • MySQL-embedded-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm

    The embedded MySQL server library.

  • MySQL-test-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm

    This package includes the MySQL test suite.

  • MySQL-VERSION.src.rpm

    This contains the source code for all of the previous packages. It can also be used to rebuild the RPMs on other architectures (for example, Alpha or SPARC).

The suffix of RPM package names (following the VERSION value) has the following syntax:

.PLATFORM.CPU.rpm

The PLATFORM and CPU values indicate the type of system for which the package is built. PLATFORM indicates the platform and CPU indicates the processor type or family.

All packages are dynamically linked against glibc 2.3. The PLATFORM value indicates whether the package is platform independent or intended for a specific platform, as shown in the following table.

Table 2.10. MySQL Linux Installation Packages

PLATFORM ValueIntended Use
glibc23Platform independent, should run on any Linux distribution that supports glibc 2.3
rhel4, rhel5Red Hat Enterprise Linux 4 or 5
el6Enterprise Linux 6
sles10, sles11SuSE Linux Enterprise Server 10 or 11

In MySQL 5.6, only glibc23 packages are available currently.

The CPU value indicates the processor type or family for which the package is built.

Table 2.11. MySQL Installation Packages for Linux CPU Identifiers

CPU ValueIntended Processor Type or Family
i386, i586, i686Pentium processor or better, 32 bit
x86_6464-bit x86 processor
ia64Itanium (IA-64) processor

To see all files in an RPM package (for example, a MySQL-server RPM), run a command like this:

shell> rpm -qpl MySQL-server-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm

To perform a standard minimal installation, install the server and client RPMs:

shell> rpm -i MySQL-server-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm
shell> rpm -i MySQL-client-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm

To install only the client programs, install just the client RPM:

shell> rpm -i MySQL-client-VERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm

RPM provides a feature to verify the integrity and authenticity of packages before installing them. To learn more about this feature, see Section 2.1.4, “Verifying Package Integrity Using MD5 Checksums or GnuPG”.

The server RPM places data under the /var/lib/mysql directory. The RPM also creates a login account for a user named mysql (if one does not exist) to use for running the MySQL server, and creates the appropriate entries in /etc/init.d/ to start the server automatically at boot time. (This means that if you have performed a previous installation and have made changes to its startup script, you may want to make a copy of the script so that you do not lose it when you install a newer RPM.) See Section 2.10.1.2, “Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically”, for more information on how MySQL can be started automatically on system startup.

In MySQL 5.6, during a new installation, the server boot scripts are installed, but the MySQL server is not started at the end of the installation, since the status of the server during an unattended installation is not known.

In MySQL 5.6, during an upgrade installation using the RPM packages, if the MySQL server is running when the upgrade occurs, the MySQL server is stopped, the upgrade occurs, and the MySQL server is restarted. If the MySQL server is not already running when the RPM upgrade occurs, the MySQL server is not started at the end of the installation.

If something goes wrong, you can find more information in the binary installation section. See Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”.

Note

The accounts that are listed in the MySQL grant tables initially have no passwords. After starting the server, you should set up passwords for them using the instructions in Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”.

During RPM installation, a user named mysql and a group named mysql are created on the system. This is done using the useradd, groupadd, and usermod commands. Those commands require appropriate administrative privileges, which is required for locally managed users and groups (as listed in the /etc/passwd and /etc/group files) by the RPM installation process being run by root.

If you log in as the mysql user, you may find that MySQL displays Invalid (old?) table or database name errors that mention .mysqlgui, lost+found, .mysqlgui, .bash_history, .fonts.cache-1, .lesshst, .mysql_history, .profile, .viminfo, and similar files created by MySQL or operating system utilities. You can safely ignore these error messages or remove the files or directories that cause them if you do not need them.

For nonlocal user management (LDAP, NIS, and so forth), the administrative tools may require additional authentication (such as a password), and will fail if the installing user does not provide this authentication. Even if they fail, the RPM installation will not abort but succeed, and this is intentional. If they failed, some of the intended transfer of ownership may be missing, and it is recommended that the system administrator then manually ensures some appropriate user and group exists and manually transfers ownership following the actions in the RPM spec file.

In MySQL 5.6.11, the RPM spec file has been updated, which has the following consequences:

  • For a non-upgrade installation (no existing MySQL version installed), it possible to install MySQL using yum.

  • For upgrades, it is necessary to clean up any earlier MySQL installations. In effect, the update is performed by removing the old installations and installing the new one.

Additional details follow.

For a non-upgrade installation of MySQL 5.6.11, it is possible to install using yum:

shell> yum install MySQL-server-NEWVERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm

For upgrades to MySQL 5.6.11, the upgrade is performed by removing the old installation and installing the new one. To do this, use the following procedure:

  1. Remove the existing 5.6.X installation. OLDVERSION is the version to remove.

    shell> rpm -e MySQL-server-OLDVERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm

    Repeat this step for all installed MySQL RPMs.

  2. Install the new version. NEWVERSION is the version to install.

    shell> rpm -ivh MySQL-server-NEWVERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm

Alternatively, the removal and installation can be done using yum:

shell> yum remove MySQL-server-OLDVERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm
shell> yum install MySQL-server-NEWVERSION.glibc23.i386.rpm

2.5.2. Installing MySQL on Linux Using Debian Packages

Oracle provides Debian packages for installation on Debian or Debian-like Linux systems. To obtain a package, see Section 2.1.3, “How to Get MySQL”.

Note

Debian distributions of MySQL are also provided by other vendors. Be aware that they may differ from those built by us in features, capabilities, and conventions (including communication setup), and that the instructions in this manual do not necessarily apply to installing them. The vendor's instructions should be consulted instead.

Debian package files have names in mysql-MVER-DVER-CPU.deb format. MVER is the MySQL version and DVER is the Debian version. The CPU value indicates the processor type or family for which the package is built, as shown in the following table.

Table 2.12. MySQL Installation Packages for Linux CPU Identifiers

CPU ValueIntended Processor Type or Family
i686Pentium processor or better, 32 bit
x86_6464-bit x86 processor

After downloading a Debian package, use the following command to install it;

shell> dpkg -i mysql-MVER-DVER-CPU.deb

The Debian package installs files in the /opt/mysql/server-5.6 directory.

You may also need to install the libaio library if it is not already present on your system:

shell> apt-get install libaio1

2.5.3. Installing MySQL on Linux Using Native Package Managers

Many Linux distributions include a version of the MySQL server, client tools, and development components into the standard package management system built into distributions such as Fedora, Debian, Ubuntu, and Gentoo. This section provides basic instructions for installing MySQL using these systems.

Important

Native package installations can take care of the download and dependencies required to run MySQL, but the MySQL version will often be some way behind the currently available release. You will also normally be unable to install development releases, as these are not usually made available in the native repository.

Distribution specific instructions are shown below:

  • Red Hat Linux, Fedora, CentOS

    For Red Hat and similar distributions, the MySQL distribution is divided into a number of separate packages, mysql for the client tools, mysql-server for the server and associated tools, and mysql-libs for the libraries. The libraries are required if you want to provide connectivity from different languages and environments such as Perl, Python and others.

    To install, use the yum command to specify the packages that you want to install. For example:

    root-shell> yum install mysql mysql-server mysql-libs mysql-server
    Loaded plugins: presto, refresh-packagekit
    Setting up Install Process
    Resolving Dependencies
    --> Running transaction check
    ---> Package mysql.x86_64 0:5.1.48-2.fc13 set to be updated
    ---> Package mysql-libs.x86_64 0:5.1.48-2.fc13 set to be updated
    ---> Package mysql-server.x86_64 0:5.1.48-2.fc13 set to be updated
    --> Processing Dependency: perl-DBD-MySQL for package: mysql-server-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64
    --> Running transaction check
    ---> Package perl-DBD-MySQL.x86_64 0:4.017-1.fc13 set to be updated
    --> Finished Dependency Resolution
    
    Dependencies Resolved
    
    ================================================================================
     Package               Arch          Version               Repository      Size
    ================================================================================
    Installing:
     mysql                 x86_64        5.1.48-2.fc13         updates        889 k
     mysql-libs            x86_64        5.1.48-2.fc13         updates        1.2 M
     mysql-server          x86_64        5.1.48-2.fc13         updates        8.1 M
    Installing for dependencies:
     perl-DBD-MySQL        x86_64        4.017-1.fc13          updates        136 k
    
    Transaction Summary
    ================================================================================
    Install       4 Package(s)
    Upgrade       0 Package(s)
    
    Total download size: 10 M
    Installed size: 30 M
    Is this ok [y/N]: y
    Downloading Packages:
    Setting up and reading Presto delta metadata
    Processing delta metadata
    Package(s) data still to download: 10 M
    (1/4): mysql-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64.rpm                    | 889 kB     00:04     
    (2/4): mysql-libs-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64.rpm               | 1.2 MB     00:06     
    (3/4): mysql-server-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64.rpm             | 8.1 MB     00:40     
    (4/4): perl-DBD-MySQL-4.017-1.fc13.x86_64.rpm            | 136 kB     00:00     
    --------------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Total                                           201 kB/s |  10 MB     00:52     
    Running rpm_check_debug
    Running Transaction Test
    Transaction Test Succeeded
    Running Transaction
      Installing     : mysql-libs-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64                          1/4 
      Installing     : mysql-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64                               2/4 
      Installing     : perl-DBD-MySQL-4.017-1.fc13.x86_64                       3/4 
      Installing     : mysql-server-5.1.48-2.fc13.x86_64                        4/4 
    
    Installed:
      mysql.x86_64 0:5.1.48-2.fc13            mysql-libs.x86_64 0:5.1.48-2.fc13    
      mysql-server.x86_64 0:5.1.48-2.fc13    
    
    Dependency Installed:
      perl-DBD-MySQL.x86_64 0:4.017-1.fc13                                          
    
    Complete!

    MySQL and the MySQL server should now be installed. A sample configuration file is installed into /etc/my.cnf. An init script, to start and stop the server, will have been installed into /etc/init.d/mysqld. To start the MySQL server use service:

    root-shell> service mysqld start

    To enable the server to be started and stopped automatically during boot, use chkconfig:

    root-shell> chkconfig --levels 235 mysqld on

    Which enables the MySQL server to be started (and stopped) automatically at the specified the run levels.

    The database tables will have been automatically created for you, if they do not already exist. You should, however, run mysql_secure_installation to set the root passwords on your server.

  • Debian, Ubuntu, Kubuntu

    On Debian and related distributions, there are two packages, mysql-client and mysql-server, for the client and server components respectively. You should specify an explicit version, for example mysql-client-5.1, to ensure that you install the version of MySQL that you want.

    To download and install, including any dependencies, use the apt-get command, specifying the packages that you want to install.

    Note

    Before installing, make sure that you update your apt-get index files to ensure you are downloading the latest available version.

    A sample installation of the MySQL packages might look like this (some sections trimmed for clarity):

    root-shell> apt-get install mysql-client-5.1 mysql-server-5.1
    Reading package lists... Done
    Building dependency tree       
    Reading state information... Done
    The following packages were automatically installed and are no longer required:
      linux-headers-2.6.28-11 linux-headers-2.6.28-11-generic
    Use 'apt-get autoremove' to remove them.
    The following extra packages will be installed:
      bsd-mailx libdbd-mysql-perl libdbi-perl libhtml-template-perl
      libmysqlclient15off libmysqlclient16 libnet-daemon-perl libplrpc-perl mailx
      mysql-common postfix
    Suggested packages:
      dbishell libipc-sharedcache-perl tinyca procmail postfix-mysql postfix-pgsql
      postfix-ldap postfix-pcre sasl2-bin resolvconf postfix-cdb
    The following NEW packages will be installed
      bsd-mailx libdbd-mysql-perl libdbi-perl libhtml-template-perl
      libmysqlclient15off libmysqlclient16 libnet-daemon-perl libplrpc-perl mailx
      mysql-client-5.1 mysql-common mysql-server-5.1 postfix
    0 upgraded, 13 newly installed, 0 to remove and 182 not upgraded.
    Need to get 1907kB/25.3MB of archives.
    After this operation, 59.5MB of additional disk space will be used.
    Do you want to continue [Y/n]? Y
    Get: 1 http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com jaunty-updates/main mysql-common 5.1.30really5.0.75-0ubuntu10.5 [63.6kB]
    Get: 2 http://gb.archive.ubuntu.com jaunty-updates/main libmysqlclient15off 5.1.30really5.0.75-0ubuntu10.5 [1843kB]
    Fetched 1907kB in 9s (205kB/s)                                                 
    Preconfiguring packages ...
    Selecting previously deselected package mysql-common.
    (Reading database ... 121260 files and directories currently installed.)
    ...
    Processing 1 added doc-base file(s)...
    Registering documents with scrollkeeper...
    Setting up libnet-daemon-perl (0.43-1) ...
    Setting up libplrpc-perl (0.2020-1) ...
    Setting up libdbi-perl (1.607-1) ...
    Setting up libmysqlclient15off (5.1.30really5.0.75-0ubuntu10.5) ...
    
    Setting up libdbd-mysql-perl (4.008-1) ...
    Setting up libmysqlclient16 (5.1.31-1ubuntu2) ...
    
    Setting up mysql-client-5.1 (5.1.31-1ubuntu2) ...
    
    Setting up mysql-server-5.1 (5.1.31-1ubuntu2) ...
     * Stopping MySQL database server mysqld
       ...done.
    100825 11:46:15  InnoDB: Started; log sequence number 0 46409
    100825 11:46:15  InnoDB: Starting shutdown...
    100825 11:46:17  InnoDB: Shutdown completed; log sequence number 0 46409
    100825 11:46:17 [Warning] Forcing shutdown of 1 plugins
     * Starting MySQL database server mysqld
       ...done.
     * Checking for corrupt, not cleanly closed and upgrade needing tables.
    ...
    Processing triggers for libc6 ...
    ldconfig deferred processing now taking place
    Note

    The apt-get command will install a number of packages, including the MySQL server, in order to provide the typical tools and application environment. This can mean that you install a large number of packages in addition to the main MySQL package.

    During installation, the initial database will be created, and you will be prompted for the MySQL root password (and confirmation). A configuration file will have been created in /etc/mysql/my.cnf. An init script will have been created in /etc/init.d/mysql.

    The server will already be started. You can manually start and stop the server using:

    root-shell> service mysql [start|stop]

    The service will automatically be added to the 2, 3 and 4 run levels, with stop scripts in the single, shutdown and restart levels.

  • Gentoo Linux

    As a source-based distribution, installing MySQL on Gentoo involves downloading the source, patching the Gentoo specifics, and then compiling the MySQL server and installing it. This process is handled automatically by the emerge command. Depending on the version of MySQL that you want to install, you may need to unmask the specific version that you want for your chosen platform.

    The MySQL server and client tools are provided within a single package, dev-db/mysql. You can obtain a list of the versions available to install by looking at the portage directory for the package:

    root-shell> ls /usr/portage/dev-db/mysql/mysql-5.1*
    mysql-5.1.39-r1.ebuild
    mysql-5.1.44-r1.ebuild
    mysql-5.1.44-r2.ebuild
    mysql-5.1.44-r3.ebuild
    mysql-5.1.44.ebuild
    mysql-5.1.45-r1.ebuild
    mysql-5.1.45.ebuild
    mysql-5.1.46.ebuild

    To install a specific MySQL version, you must specify the entire atom. For example:

    root-shell> emerge =dev-db/mysql-5.1.46

    A simpler alternative is to use the virtual/mysql-5.1 package, which will install the latest version:

    root-shell> emerge =virtual/mysql-5.1

    If the package is masked (because it is not tested or certified for the current platform), use the ACCEPT_KEYWORDS environment variable. For example:

    root-shell> ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86" emerge =virtual/mysql-5.1

    After installation, you should create a new database using mysql_install_db, and set the password for the root user on MySQL. You can use the configuration interface to set the password and create the initial database:

    root-shell> emerge --config =dev-db/mysql-5.1.46

    A sample configuration file will have been created for you in /etc/mysql/my.cnf, and an init script will have been created in /etc/init.d/mysql.

    To enable MySQL to start automatically at the normal (default) run levels, you can use:

    root-shell> rc-update add mysql default

2.6. Installing MySQL on Solaris and OpenSolaris

MySQL on Solaris and OpenSolaris is available in a number of different formats.

To obtain a binary MySQL distribution for Solaris in tarball or PKG format, http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/mysql/5.6.html.

Additional notes to be aware of when installing and using MySQL on Solaris:

  • If you want to use MySQL with the mysql user and group, use the groupadd and useradd commands:

    groupadd mysql
    useradd -g mysql mysql
  • If you install MySQL using a binary tarball distribution on Solaris, you may run into trouble even before you get the MySQL distribution unpacked, as the Solaris tar cannot handle long file names. This means that you may see errors when you try to unpack MySQL.

    If this occurs, you must use GNU tar (gtar) to unpack the distribution. In Solaris 10 and OpenSolaris gtar is normally located in /usr/sfw/bin/gtar, but may not be included in the default path definition.

  • When using Solaris 10 for x86_64, you should mount any file systems on which you intend to store InnoDB files with the forcedirectio option. (By default mounting is done without this option.) Failing to do so will cause a significant drop in performance when using the InnoDB storage engine on this platform.

  • If you would like MySQL to start automatically, you can copy support-files/mysql.server to /etc/init.d and create a symbolic link to it named /etc/rc3.d/S99mysql.server.

  • If too many processes try to connect very rapidly to mysqld, you should see this error in the MySQL log:

    Error in accept: Protocol error

    You might try starting the server with the --back_log=50 option as a workaround for this.

  • To configure the generation of core files on Solaris you should use the coreadm command. Because of the security implications of generating a core on a setuid() application, by default, Solaris does not support core files on setuid() programs. However, you can modify this behavior using coreadm. If you enable setuid() core files for the current user, they will be generated using the mode 600 and owned by the superuser.

2.6.1. Installing MySQL on Solaris Using a Solaris PKG

You can install MySQL on Solaris and OpenSolaris using a binary package using the native Solaris PKG format instead of the binary tarball distribution.

To use this package, download the corresponding mysql-VERSION-solaris10-PLATFORM.pkg.gz file, then uncompress it. For example:

shell> gunzip mysql-5.6.15-solaris10-x86_64.pkg.gz

To install a new package, use pkgadd and follow the onscreen prompts. You must have root privileges to perform this operation:

shell> pkgadd -d mysql-5.6.15-solaris10-x86_64.pkg

The following packages are available:
  1  mysql     MySQL Community Server (GPL)
               (i86pc) 5.6.15

Select package(s) you wish to process (or 'all' to process
all packages). (default: all) [?,??,q]:

The PKG installer installs all of the files and tools needed, and then initializes your database if one does not exist. To complete the installation, you should set the root password for MySQL as provided in the instructions at the end of the installation. Alternatively, you can run the mysql_secure_installation script that comes with the installation.

By default, the PKG package installs MySQL under the root path /opt/mysql. You can change only the installation root path when using pkgadd, which can be used to install MySQL in a different Solaris zone. If you need to install in a specific directory, use a binary tar file distribution.

The pkg installer copies a suitable startup script for MySQL into /etc/init.d/mysql. To enable MySQL to startup and shutdown automatically, you should create a link between this file and the init script directories. For example, to ensure safe startup and shutdown of MySQL you could use the following commands to add the right links:

shell> ln /etc/init.d/mysql /etc/rc3.d/S91mysql
shell> ln /etc/init.d/mysql /etc/rc0.d/K02mysql

To remove MySQL, the installed package name is mysql. You can use this in combination with the pkgrm command to remove the installation.

To upgrade when using the Solaris package file format, you must remove the existing installation before installing the updated package. Removal of the package does not delete the existing database information, only the server, binaries and support files. The typical upgrade sequence is therefore:

shell> mysqladmin shutdown
shell> pkgrm mysql
shell> pkgadd -d mysql-5.6.15-solaris10-x86_64.pkg
shell> mysqld_safe &
shell> mysql_upgrade

You should check the notes in Section 2.11, “Upgrading or Downgrading MySQL” before performing any upgrade.

2.6.2. Installing MySQL on OpenSolaris Using IPS

OpenSolaris includes standard packages for MySQL in the core repository. The MySQL packages are based on a specific release of MySQL and updated periodically. For the latest release you must use either the native Solaris PKG, tar, or source installations. The native OpenSolaris packages include SMF files so that you can easily control your MySQL installation, including automatic startup and recovery, using the native service management tools.

To install MySQL on OpenSolaris, use the pkg command. You will need to be logged in as root, or use the pfexec tool, as shown in the example below:

shell> pfexec pkg install SUNWmysql56

The package set installs three individual packages, SUNWmysql56lib, which contains the MySQL client libraries; SUNWmysql56r which contains the root components, including SMF and configuration files; and SUNWmysql56u which contains the scripts, binary tools and other files. You can install these packages individually if you only need the corresponding components.

The MySQL files are installed into /usr/mysql which symbolic links for the sub directories (bin, lib, etc.) to a version specific directory. For MySQL 5.6, the full installation is located in /usr/mysql/5.6. The default data directory is /var/mysql/5.6/data. The configuration file is installed in /etc/mysql/5.6/my.cnf. This layout permits multiple versions of MySQL to be installed, without overwriting the data and binaries from other versions.

Once installed, you must run mysql_install_db to initialize the database, and use the mysql_secure_installation to secure your installation.

Using SMF to manage your MySQL installation

Once installed, you can start and stop your MySQL server using the installed SMF configuration. The service name is mysql, or if you have multiple versions installed, you should use the full version name, for example mysql:version_56. To start and enable MySQL to be started at boot time:

shell> svcadm enable mysql

To disable MySQL from starting during boot time, and shut the MySQL server down if it is running, use:

shell> svcadm disable mysql

To restart MySQL, for example after a configuration file changes, use the restart option:

shell> svcadm restart mysql

You can also use SMF to configure the data directory and enable full 64-bit mode. For example, to set the data directory used by MySQL:

shell> svccfg 
svc:> select mysql:version_56 
svc:/application/database/mysql:version_56> setprop mysql/data=/data0/mysql

By default, the 32-bit binaries are used. To enable the 64-bit server on 64-bit platforms, set the enable_64bit parameter. For example:

svc:/application/database/mysql:version_56> setprop mysql/enable_64bit=1

You need to refresh the SMF after settings these options:

shell> svcadm refresh mysql

2.7. Installing MySQL on HP-UX

MySQL for HP-UX is available in a number of different forms:

2.7.1. General Notes on Installing MySQL on HP-UX

Some additional notes on installing and using MySQL on HP-UX:

  • If you install MySQL using a binary tarball distribution on HP-UX, you may run into trouble even before you get the MySQL distribution unpacked, as the HP-UX tar cannot handle long file names. This means that you may see errors when you try to unpack MySQL.

    If this occurs, you must use GNU tar (gtar) to unpack the distribution.

  • Because of some critical bugs in the standard HP-UX libraries, you should install the following patches before trying to run MySQL on HP-UX 11.0:

    PHKL_22840 Streams cumulative
    PHNE_22397 ARPA cumulative

    This solves the problem of getting EWOULDBLOCK from recv() and EBADF from accept() in threaded applications.

2.7.2. Installing MySQL on HP-UX Using DEPOT Packages

The HP-UX DEPOT format packages can be installed using the swinstall command. You should install the ncurses and zlib libraries before installing the MySQL DEPOT package. You can use the free software depothelper tool to install these packages and any dependencies for you automatically.

To install using the MySQL DEPOT packages, follow this guide:

  1. Download the MySQL DEPOT package from http://dev.mysql.com/downloads/. You must uncompress the package before installation:

    root-shell> gunzip mysql-5.1.48-hpux11.31-ia64-64bit.depot.gz
  2. Install the DEPOT package using swinstall:

    root-shell> swinstall -s mysql-5.1.49-hpux11.31-ia64-64bit.depot

    MySQL will be installed into a directory matching the depot package name, within /usr/local. For convenience, you may want to create a symbolic link to the installed directory, for example:

    root-shell> ln -s mysql-5.1.49-hpux11.31-ia64-64bit mysql
  3. Your package is now installed. You should complete the configuration of MySQL by creating a user and group:

    root-shell> /usr/sbin/groupadd mysql
    root-shell> /usr/sbin/useradd -g mysql -d /var/lib/mysql/ -s /bin/false mysql
  4. Create the standard database using the new user/group you have created, and set the permissions:

    root-shell> cd /usr/local/
    root-shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
    root-shell> chown -R root .
    root-shell> chown -R mysql data
  5. Finally, secure your new installation by setting the root passwords, and then start your MySQL server using the mysql user:

    root-shell> mysql_secure_installation
    root-shell> mysqld_safe --user=mysql &

2.8. Installing MySQL on FreeBSD

This section provides information about installing MySQL on variants of FreeBSD Unix.

You can install MySQL on FreeBSD by using the binary distribution provided by Oracle. For more information, see Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”.

The easiest (and preferred) way to install MySQL is to use the mysql-server and mysql-client ports available at http://www.freebsd.org/. Using these ports gives you the following benefits:

  • A working MySQL with all optimizations enabled that are known to work on your version of FreeBSD.

  • Automatic configuration and build.

  • Startup scripts installed in /usr/local/etc/rc.d.

  • The ability to use pkg_info -L to see which files are installed.

  • The ability to use pkg_delete to remove MySQL if you no longer want it on your machine.

The MySQL build process requires GNU make (gmake) to work. If GNU make is not available, you must install it first before compiling MySQL.

To install using the ports system:

# cd /usr/ports/databases/mysql51-server
# make
...
# cd /usr/ports/databases/mysql51-client
# make
...

The standard port installation places the server into /usr/local/libexec/mysqld, with the startup script for the MySQL server placed in /usr/local/etc/rc.d/mysql-server.

Some additional notes on the BSD implementation:

  • To remove MySQL after installation using the ports system:

    # cd /usr/ports/databases/mysql51-server
    # make deinstall
    ...
    # cd /usr/ports/databases/mysql51-client
    # make deinstall
    ...
  • If you get problems with the current date in MySQL, setting the TZ variable should help. See Section 2.12, “Environment Variables”.

2.9. Installing MySQL from Source

Building MySQL from the source code enables you to customize build parameters, compiler optimizations, and installation location. For a list of systems on which MySQL is known to run, see Section 2.1.1, “Operating Systems Supported by MySQL Community Server”.

Before you proceed with an installation from source, check whether Oracle produces a precompiled binary distribution for your platform and whether it works for you. We put a great deal of effort into ensuring that our binaries are built with the best possible options for optimal performance. Instructions for installing binary distributions are available in Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”.

Source Installation Methods

There are two methods for installing MySQL from source:

  • Use a standard MySQL source distribution. To obtain a standard distribution, see Section 2.1.3, “How to Get MySQL”. For instructions on building from a standard distribution, see Section 2.9.2, “Installing MySQL Using a Standard Source Distribution”.

    Standard distributions are available as compressed tar files, Zip archives, or RPM packages. Distribution files have names of the form mysql-VERSION.tar.gz, mysql-VERSION.zip, or mysql-VERSION.rpm, where VERSION is a number like 5.6.15. File names for source distributions can be distinguished from those for precompiled binary distributions in that source distribution names are generic and include no platform name, whereas binary distribution names include a platform name indicating the type of system for which the distribution is intended (for example, pc-linux-i686 or winx64).

  • Use a MySQL development tree. Development trees have not necessarily received the same level of testing as standard release distributions, so this installation method is usually required only if you need the most recent code changes. For information on building from one of the development trees, see Section 2.9.3, “Installing MySQL Using a Development Source Tree”.

Source Installation System Requirements

Installation of MySQL from source requires several development tools. Some of these tools are needed no matter whether you use a standard source distribution or a development source tree. Other tool requirements depend on which installation method you use.

To install MySQL from source, your system must have the following tools, regardless of installation method:

  • CMake, which is used as the build framework on all platforms. CMake can be downloaded from http://www.cmake.org.

  • A good make program. Although some platforms come with their own make implementations, it is highly recommended that you use GNU make 3.75 or newer. It may already be available on your system as gmake. GNU make is available from http://www.gnu.org/software/make/.

  • A working ANSI C++ compiler. GCC 4.2.1 or later, Sun Studio 10 or later, Visual Studio 2008 or later, and many current vendor-supplied compilers are known to work.

  • Perl is needed if you intend to run test scripts. Most Unix-like systems include Perl. On Windows, you can use a version such as ActiveState Perl.

To install MySQL from a standard source distribution, one of the following tools is required to unpack the distribution file:

  • For a .tar.gz compressed tar file: GNU gunzip to uncompress the distribution and a reasonable tar to unpack it. If your tar program supports the z option, it can both uncompress and unpack the file.

    GNU tar is known to work. The standard tar provided with some operating systems is not able to unpack the long file names in the MySQL distribution. You should download and install GNU tar, or if available, use a preinstalled version of GNU tar. Usually this is available as gnutar, gtar, or as tar within a GNU or Free Software directory, such as /usr/sfw/bin or /usr/local/bin. GNU tar is available from http://www.gnu.org/software/tar/.

  • For a .zip Zip archive: WinZip or another tool that can read .zip files.

  • For an .rpm RPM package: The rpmbuild program used to build the distribution unpacks it.

To install MySQL from a development source tree, the following additional tools are required:

  • To obtain the source tree, you must have Bazaar installed. The Bazaar VCS Web site has instructions for downloading and installing Bazaar on different platforms. Bazaar is supported on any platform that supports Python, and is therefore compatible with any Linux, Unix, Windows, or Mac OS X host.

  • bison is needed to generate sql_yacc.cc from sql_yacc.yy You should use the latest version of bison where possible. Versions 1.75 and 2.1 are known to work. There have been reported problems with bison 1.875. If you experience problems, upgrade to a later, rather than earlier, version.

    bison is available from http://www.gnu.org/software/bison/. bison for Windows can be downloaded from http://gnuwin32.sourceforge.net/packages/bison.htm. Download the package labeled Complete package, excluding sources. On Windows, the default location for bison is the C:\Program Files\GnuWin32 directory. Some utilities may fail to find bison because of the space in the directory name. Also, Visual Studio may simply hang if there are spaces in the path. You can resolve these problems by installing into a directory that does not contain a space; for example C:\GnuWin32.

  • On OpenSolaris and Solaris Express, m4 must be installed in addition to bison. m4 is available from http://www.gnu.org/software/m4/.

Note

If you have to install any programs, modify your PATH environment variable to include any directories in which the programs are located. See Section 4.2.4, “Setting Environment Variables”.

If you run into problems and need to file a bug report, please use the instructions in Section 1.7, “How to Report Bugs or Problems”.

2.9.1. MySQL Layout for Source Installation

By default, when you install MySQL after compiling it from source, the installation step installs files under /usr/local/mysql. The component locations under the installation directory are the same as for binary distributions. See Table 2.3, “MySQL Installation Layout for Generic Unix/Linux Binary Package”, and Section 2.3.1, “MySQL Installation Layout on Microsoft Windows”. To configure installation locations different from the defaults, use the options described at Section 2.9.4, “MySQL Source-Configuration Options”.

2.9.2. Installing MySQL Using a Standard Source Distribution

To install MySQL from a standard source distribution:

  1. Verify that your system satisfies the tool requirements listed at Section 2.9, “Installing MySQL from Source”.

  2. Obtain a distribution file using the instructions in Section 2.1.3, “How to Get MySQL”.

  3. Configure, build, and install the distribution using the instructions in this section.

  4. Perform postinstallation procedures using the instructions in Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”.

In MySQL 5.6, CMake is used as the build framework on all platforms. The instructions given here should enable you to produce a working installation. For additional information on using CMake to build MySQL, see How to Build MySQL Server with CMake.

If you start from a source RPM, use the following command to make a binary RPM that you can install. If you do not have rpmbuild, use rpm instead.

shell> rpmbuild --rebuild --clean MySQL-VERSION.src.rpm

The result is one or more binary RPM packages that you install as indicated in Section 2.5.1, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages”.

The sequence for installation from a compressed tar file or Zip archive source distribution is similar to the process for installing from a generic binary distribution (see Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”), except that it is used on all platforms and includes steps to configure and compile the distribution. For example, with a compressed tar file source distribution on Unix, the basic installation command sequence looks like this:

# Preconfiguration setup
shell> groupadd mysql
shell> useradd -r -g mysql mysql
# Beginning of source-build specific instructions
shell> tar zxvf mysql-VERSION.tar.gz
shell> cd mysql-VERSION
shell> cmake .
shell> make
shell> make install
# End of source-build specific instructions
# Postinstallation setup
shell> cd /usr/local/mysql
shell> chown -R mysql .
shell> chgrp -R mysql .
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
shell> chown -R root .
shell> chown -R mysql data
shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &
# Next command is optional
shell> cp support-files/mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql.server

mysql_install_db creates a default option file named my.cnf in the base installation directory. This file is created from a template included in the distribution package named my-default.cnf. For more information, see Section 5.1.2.2, “Using a Sample Default Server Configuration File”.

A more detailed version of the source-build specific instructions is shown following.

Note

The procedure shown here does not set up any passwords for MySQL accounts. After following the procedure, proceed to Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”, for postinstallation setup and testing.

Perform Preconfiguration Setup

On Unix, set up the mysql user and group that will be used to run and execute the MySQL server and own the database directory. For details, see Creating a mysql System User and Group, in Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”. Then perform the following steps as the mysql user, except as noted.

Obtain and Unpack the Distribution

Pick the directory under which you want to unpack the distribution and change location into it.

Obtain a distribution file using the instructions in Section 2.1.3, “How to Get MySQL”.

Unpack the distribution into the current directory:

  • To unpack a compressed tar file, tar can uncompress and unpack the distribution if it has z option support:

    shell> tar zxvf mysql-VERSION.tar.gz

    If your tar does not have z option support, use gunzip to unpack the distribution and tar to unpack it:

    shell> gunzip < mysql-VERSION.tar.gz | tar xvf -

    Alternatively, CMake can uncompress and unpack the distribution:

    shell> cmake -E tar zxvf mysql-VERSION.tar.gz
  • To unpack a Zip archive, use WinZip or another tool that can read .zip files.

Unpacking the distribution file creates a directory named mysql-VERSION.

Configure the Distribution

Change location into the top-level directory of the unpacked distribution:

shell> cd mysql-VERSION

Configure the source directory. The minimum configuration command includes no options to override configuration defaults:

shell> cmake .

On Windows, specify the development environment. For example, the following commands configure MySQL for 32-bit or 64-bit builds, respectively:

shell> cmake . -G "Visual Studio 9 2008"
shell> cmake . -G "Visual Studio 9 2008 Win64"

On Mac OS X, to use the Xcode IDE:

shell> cmake . -G Xcode

When you run cmake, you might want to add options to the command line. Here are some examples:

For a more extensive list of options, see Section 2.9.4, “MySQL Source-Configuration Options”.

To list the configuration options, use one of the following commands:

shell> cmake . -L   # overview
shell> cmake . -LH  # overview with help text
shell> cmake . -LAH # all params with help text
shell> ccmake .     # interactive display

If CMake fails, you might need to reconfigure by running it again with different options. If you do reconfigure, take note of the following:

  • If CMake is run after it has previously been run, it may use information that was gathered during its previous invocation. This information is stored in CMakeCache.txt. When CMake starts up, it looks for that file and reads its contents if it exists, on the assumption that the information is still correct. That assumption is invalid when you reconfigure.

  • Each time you run CMake, you must run make again to recompile. However, you may want to remove old object files from previous builds first because they were compiled using different configuration options.

To prevent old object files or configuration information from being used, run these commands on Unix before re-running CMake:

shell> make clean
shell> rm CMakeCache.txt

Or, on Windows:

shell> devenv MySQL.sln /clean
shell> del CMakeCache.txt

If you build out of the source tree (as described later), the CMakeCache.txt file and all built files are in the build directory, so you can remove that directory to object files and cached configuration information.

If you are going to send mail to a MySQL mailing list to ask for configuration assistance, first check the files in the CMakeFiles directory for useful information about the failure. To file a bug report, please use the instructions in Section 1.7, “How to Report Bugs or Problems”.

Build the Distribution

On Unix:

shell> make
shell> make VERBOSE=1

The second command sets VERBOSE to show the commands for each compiled source.

Use gmake instead on systems where you are using GNU make and it has been installed as gmake.

On Windows:

shell> devenv MySQL.sln /build RelWithDebInfo

It is possible to build out of the source tree to keep the tree clean. If the top-level source directory is named mysql-src under your current working directory, you can build in a directory named build at the same level like this:

shell> mkdir build
shell> cd build
shell> cmake ../mysql-src

If you have gotten to the compilation stage, but the distribution does not build, see Section 2.9.5, “Dealing with Problems Compiling MySQL”, for help. If that does not solve the problem, please enter it into our bugs database using the instructions given in Section 1.7, “How to Report Bugs or Problems”. If you have installed the latest versions of the required tools, and they crash trying to process our configuration files, please report that also. However, if you get a command not found error or a similar problem for required tools, do not report it. Instead, make sure that all the required tools are installed and that your PATH variable is set correctly so that your shell can find them.

Install the Distribution

On Unix:

shell> make install

This installs the files under the configured installation directory (by default, /usr/local/mysql). You might need to run the command as root.

To install in a specific directory, add a DESTDIR parameter to the command line:

shell> make install DESTDIR="/opt/mysql"

Alternatively, generate installation package files that you can install where you like:

shell> make package

This operation produces one or more .tar.gz files that can be installed like generic binary distribution packages. See Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”. If you run CMake with -DCPACK_MONOLITHIC_INSTALL=1, the operation produces a single file. Otherwise, it produces multiple files.

On Windows, generate the data directory, then create a .zip archive installation package:

shell> devenv MySQL.sln /build RelWithDebInfo /project initial_database
shell> devenv MySQL.sln /build RelWithDebInfo /project package

You can install the resulting .zip archive where you like. See Section 2.3.5, “Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using a noinstall Zip Archive”.

Perform Postinstallation Setup

The remainder of the installation process involves setting up the configuration file, creating the core databases, and starting the MySQL server. For instructions, see Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”.

Note

The accounts that are listed in the MySQL grant tables initially have no passwords. After starting the server, you should set up passwords for them using the instructions in Section 2.10, “Postinstallation Setup and Testing”.

2.9.3. Installing MySQL Using a Development Source Tree

This section discusses how to install MySQL from the latest development source code. Development trees have not necessarily received the same level of testing as standard release distributions, so this installation method is usually required only if you need the most recent code changes. Do not use a development tree for production systems. If your goal is simply to get MySQL up and running on your system, you should use a standard release distribution (either a binary or source distribution). See Section 2.1.3, “How to Get MySQL”.

MySQL development projects are hosted on Launchpad. MySQL projects, including MySQL Server, MySQL Workbench, and others are available from the Oracle/MySQL Engineering page. For the repositories related only to MySQL Server, see the MySQL Server page.

To install MySQL from a development source tree, your system must satisfy the tool requirements listed at Section 2.9, “Installing MySQL from Source”, including the requirements for Bazaar and bison.

To create a local branch of the MySQL development tree on your machine, use this procedure:

  1. To obtain a copy of the MySQL source code, you must create a new Bazaar branch. If you do not already have a Bazaar repository directory set up, you must initialize a new directory:

    shell> mkdir mysql-server
    shell> bzr init-repo --trees mysql-server

    This is a one-time operation.

  2. Assuming that you have an initialized repository directory, you can branch from the public MySQL server repositories to create a local source tree. To create a branch of a specific version:

    shell> cd mysql-server
    shell> bzr branch lp:mysql-server/5.6 mysql-5.6

    This is a one-time operation per source tree. You can branch the source trees for several versions of MySQL under the mysql-server directory.

  3. The initial download will take some time to complete, depending on the speed of your connection. Please be patient. Once you have downloaded the first tree, additional trees should take significantly less time to download.

  4. When building from the Bazaar branch, you may want to create a copy of your active branch so that you can make configuration and other changes without affecting the original branch contents. You can achieve this by branching from the original branch:

    shell> bzr branch mysql-5.6 mysql-5.6-build
  5. To obtain changes made after you have set up the branch initially, update it using the pull option periodically. Use this command in the top-level directory of the local copy:

    shell> bzr pull

    To examine the changeset comments for the tree, use the log option to bzr:

    shell> bzr log

    You can also browse changesets, comments, and source code online at the Launchpad MySQL Server page.

    If you see diffs (changes) or code that you have a question about, do not hesitate to send email to the MySQL internals mailing list. See Section 1.6.1, “MySQL Mailing Lists”. If you think you have a better idea on how to do something, send an email message to the list with a patch.

After you have the local branch, you can build MySQL server from the source code. For information, see Section 2.9.2, “Installing MySQL Using a Standard Source Distribution”, except that you skip the part about obtaining and unpacking the distribution.

Be careful about installing a build from a distribution source tree on a production machine. The installation command may overwrite your live release installation. If you already have MySQL installed and do not want to overwrite it, run CMake with values for the CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX, MYSQL_TCP_PORT, and MYSQL_UNIX_ADDR options different from those used by your production server. For additional information about preventing multiple servers from interfering with each other, see Section 5.6, “Running Multiple MySQL Instances on One Machine”.

Play hard with your new installation. For example, try to make new features crash. Start by running make test. See Section 23.1.2, “The MySQL Test Suite”.

2.9.4. MySQL Source-Configuration Options

The CMake program provides a great deal of control over how you configure a MySQL source distribution. Typically, you do this using options on the CMake command line. For information about options supported by CMake, run either of these commands in the top-level source directory:

shell> cmake . -LH
shell> ccmake .

You can also affect CMake using certain environment variables. See Section 2.12, “Environment Variables”.

The following table shows the available CMake options. In the Default column, PREFIX stands for the value of the CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX option, which specifies the installation base directory. This value is used as the parent location for several of the installation subdirectories.

Table 2.13. MySQL Source-Configuration Option Reference (CMake)

FormatsDescriptionDefaultIntroducedRemoved
BUILD_CONFIGUse same build options as official releases
CMAKE_BUILD_TYPEType of build to produceRelWithDebInfo
CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIXInstallation base directory/usr/local/mysql
COMPILATION_COMMENTComment about compilation environment
CPACK_MONOLITHIC_INSTALLWhether package build produces single fileOFF
DEFAULT_CHARSETThe default server character setlatin1
DEFAULT_COLLATIONThe default server collationlatin1_swedish_ci
ENABLE_DEBUG_SYNCWhether to enable Debug Sync supportON
ENABLE_DOWNLOADSWhether to download optional filesOFF
ENABLE_DTRACEWhether to include DTrace support
ENABLE_GCOVWhether to include gcov support5.6.3
ENABLE_GPROFEnable gprof (optimized Linux builds only)OFF5.6.6
ENABLED_LOCAL_INFILEWhether to enable LOCAL for LOAD DATA INFILEOFF
ENABLED_PROFILINGWhether to enable query profiling codeON
IGNORE_AIO_CHECKWith -DBUILD_CONFIG=mysql_release, ignore libaio checkOFF5.6.1
INSTALL_BINDIRUser executables directoryPREFIX/bin
INSTALL_DOCDIRDocumentation directoryPREFIX/docs
INSTALL_DOCREADMEDIRREADME file directoryPREFIX
INSTALL_INCLUDEDIRHeader file directoryPREFIX/include
INSTALL_INFODIRInfo file directoryPREFIX/docs
INSTALL_LAYOUTSelect predefined installation layoutSTANDALONE
INSTALL_LIBDIRLibrary file directoryPREFIX/lib
INSTALL_MANDIRManual page directoryPREFIX/man
INSTALL_MYSQLSHAREDIRShared data directoryPREFIX/share
INSTALL_MYSQLTESTDIRmysql-test directoryPREFIX/mysql-test
INSTALL_PLUGINDIRPlugin directoryPREFIX/lib/plugin
INSTALL_SBINDIRServer executable directoryPREFIX/bin
INSTALL_SCRIPTDIRScripts directoryPREFIX/scripts
INSTALL_SHAREDIRaclocal/mysql.m4 installation directoryPREFIX/share
INSTALL_SQLBENCHDIRsql-bench directoryPREFIX
INSTALL_SUPPORTFILESDIRExtra support files directoryPREFIX/support-files
MEMCACHED_HOMEPath to memcached[none]
MYSQL_DATADIRData directory
MYSQL_MAINTAINER_MODEWhether to enable MySQL maintainer-specific development environmentOFF
MYSQL_PROJECT_NAMEWindows/Mac OS X project name33065.6.5
MYSQL_TCP_PORTTCP/IP port number3306
MYSQL_UNIX_ADDRUnix socket file/tmp/mysql.sock
ODBC_INCLUDESODBC includes directory
ODBC_LIB_DIRODBC library directory
OPTIMIZER_TRACEWhether to support optimizer tracing5.6.3
SYSCONFDIROption file directory
WITH_BUNDLED_LIBEVENTUse bundled libevent when building ndbmemcacheON
WITH_BUNDLED_MEMCACHEDUse bundled memcached when building ndbmemcacheON
WITH_CLASSPATHClasspath to use when building MySQL Cluster Connector for Java. Default is an empty string.
WITH_DEBUGWhether to include debugging supportOFF
WITH_DEFAULT_COMPILER_OPTIONSWhether to use default compiler optionsON5.6.6
WITH_DEFAULT_FEATURE_SETWhether to use default feature setON5.6.6
WITH_EDITLINEWhich libedit/editline library to usebundled5.6.12
WITH_EMBEDDED_SERVERWhether to build embedded serverOFF
WITH_xxx_STORAGE_ENGINECompile storage engine xxx statically into server
WITH_ERROR_INSERTEnable error injection in the NDB storage engine. Should not be used for building binaries intended for production.OFF
WITH_EXTRA_CHARSETSWhich extra character sets to includeall
WITH_INNODB_MEMCACHEDWhether to generate memcached shared libraries.OFF
WITH_LIBEDITUse bundled libedit libraryON 5.6.12
WITH_LIBEVENTWhich libevent library to usebundled5.6.6
WITH_LIBWRAPWhether to include libwrap (TCP wrappers) supportOFF
WITH_NDB_BINLOGEnable binary logging by default by mysqld.ON
WITH_NDB_DEBUGProduce a debug build for testing or troubleshooting.OFF
WITH_NDB_JAVAEnable building of Java and ClusterJ support. Enabled by default. Supported in MySQL Cluster only.ON
WITH_NDB_PORTDefault port used by a management server built with this option. If this option was not used to build it, the management server's default port is 1186.[none]
WITH_NDB_TEST Include NDB API test programs. OFF
WITH_NDBCLUSTER_STORAGE_ENGINEBuild the NDB storage engineON
WITH_NDBMTDBuild multi-threaded data node.ON
WITH_READLINEUse bundled readline libraryOFF 5.6.5
WITH_SSLType of SSL supportno
WITH_UNIXODBCEnable unixODBC supportOFF
WITH_ZLIBType of zlib supportsystem
WITHOUT_xxx_STORAGE_ENGINEExclude storage engine xxx from build
WITHOUT_SERVERDo not build the serverOFF

The following sections provide more information about CMake options.

For boolean options, the value may be specified as 1 or ON to enable the option, or as 0 or OFF to disable the option.

Many options configure compile-time defaults that can be overridden at server startup. For example, the CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX, MYSQL_TCP_PORT, and MYSQL_UNIX_ADDR options that configure the default installation base directory location, TCP/IP port number, and Unix socket file can be changed at server startup with the --basedir, --port, and --socket options for mysqld. Where applicable, configuration option descriptions indicate the corresponding mysqld startup option.

General Options

  • -DBUILD_CONFIG=mysql_release

    This option configures a source distribution with the same build options used by Oracle to produce binary distributions for official MySQL releases.

  • -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=type

    The type of build to produce:

    • RelWithDebInfo: Enable optimizations and generate debugging information. This is the default MySQL build type.

    • Debug: Disable optimizations and generate debugging information. This build type is also used if the WITH_DEBUG option is enabled. That is, -DWITH_DEBUG=1 has the same effect as -DCMAKE_BUILD_TYPE=Debug.

  • -DCPACK_MONOLITHIC_INSTALL=bool

    This option affects whether the make package operation produces multiple installation package files or a single file. If disabled, the operation produces multiple installation package files, which may be useful if you want to install only a subset of a full MySQL installation. If enabled, it produces a single file for installing everything.

Installation Layout Options

The CMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX option indicates the base installation directory. Other options with names of the form INSTALL_xxx that indicate component locations are interpreted relative to the prefix and their values are relative pathnames. Their values should not include the prefix.

  • -DCMAKE_INSTALL_PREFIX=dir_name

    The installation base directory.

    This value can be set at server startup with the --basedir option.

  • -DINSTALL_BINDIR=dir_name

    Where to install user programs.

  • -DINSTALL_DOCDIR=dir_name

    Where to install documentation.

  • -DINSTALL_DOCREADMEDIR=dir_name

    Where to install README files.

  • -DINSTALL_INCLUDEDIR=dir_name

    Where to install header files.

  • -DINSTALL_INFODIR=dir_name

    Where to install Info files.

  • -DINSTALL_LAYOUT=name

    Select a predefined installation layout:

    • STANDALONE: Same layout as used for .tar.gz and .zip packages. This is the default.

    • RPM: Layout similar to RPM packages.

    • SVR4: Solaris package layout.

    • DEB: DEB package layout (experimental).

    You can select a predefined layout but modify individual component installation locations by specifying other options. For example:

    shell> cmake . -DINSTALL_LAYOUT=SVR4 -DMYSQL_DATADIR=/var/mysql/data
  • -DINSTALL_LIBDIR=dir_name

    Where to install library files.

  • -DINSTALL_MANDIR=dir_name

    Where to install manual pages.

  • -DINSTALL_MYSQLSHAREDIR=dir_name

    Where to install shared data files.

  • -DINSTALL_MYSQLTESTDIR=dir_name

    Where to install the mysql-test directory. As of MySQL 5.6.12, to suppress installation of this directory, explicitly set the option to the empty value (-DINSTALL_MYSQLTESTDIR=).

  • -DINSTALL_PLUGINDIR=dir_name

    The location of the plugin directory.

    This value can be set at server startup with the --plugin_dir option.

  • -DINSTALL_SBINDIR=dir_name

    Where to install the mysqld server.

  • -DINSTALL_SCRIPTDIR=dir_name

    Where to install mysql_install_db.

  • -DINSTALL_SHAREDIR=dir_name

    Where to install aclocal/mysql.m4.

  • -DINSTALL_SQLBENCHDIR=dir_name

    Where to install the sql-bench directory. To suppress installation of this directory, explicitly set the option to the empty value (-DINSTALL_SQLBENCHDIR=).

  • -DINSTALL_SUPPORTFILESDIR=dir_name

    Where to install extra support files.

  • -DMYSQL_DATADIR=dir_name

    The location of the MySQL data directory.

    This value can be set at server startup with the --datadir option.

  • -DOPTIMIZER_TRACE=bool

    Whether to support optimizer tracing. See MySQL Internals: Tracing the Optimizer. This option was added in MySQL 5.6.3.

  • -DSYSCONFDIR=dir_name

    The default my.cnf option file directory.

    This location cannot be set at server startup, but you can start the server with a given option file using the --defaults-file=file_name option, where file_name is the full path name to the file.

  • -DODBC_INCLUDES=dir_name

    The location of the ODBC includes directory, and may be used while configuring Connector/ODBC.

  • -DODBC_LIB_DIR=dir_name

    The location of the ODBC library directory, and may be used while configuring Connector/ODBC.

Storage Engine Options

Storage engines are built as plugins. You can build a plugin as a static module (compiled into the server) or a dynamic module (built as a dynamic library that must be installed into the server using the INSTALL PLUGIN statement or the --plugin-load option before it can be used). Some plugins might not support static or dynamic building.

The MyISAM, MERGE, MEMORY, and CSV engines are mandatory (always compiled into the server) and need not be installed explicitly.

To compile a storage engine statically into the server, use -DWITH_engine_STORAGE_ENGINE=1. Some permissible engine values are ARCHIVE, BLACKHOLE, EXAMPLE, FEDERATED, INNOBASE (InnoDB), NDB or NDBCLUSTER (NDB), PARTITION (partitioning support), and PERFSCHEMA (Performance Schema). Examples:

-DWITH_INNOBASE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1
-DWITH_ARCHIVE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1
-DWITH_BLACKHOLE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1
-DWITH_PERFSCHEMA_STORAGE_ENGINE=1
Note

WITH_NDBCLUSTER_STORAGE_ENGINE is supported only when building MySQL Cluster using the MySQL Cluster sources. It cannot be used to enable clustering support in other MySQL source trees or distributions. In MySQL Cluster NDB 7.3 source distributions, it is enabled by default. See Section 17.2.2.3, “Building MySQL Cluster from Source on Linux”, and Section 17.2.3.2, “Compiling and Installing MySQL Cluster from Source on Windows”, for more information.

To exclude a storage engine from the build, use -DWITHOUT_engine_STORAGE_ENGINE=1. Examples:

-DWITHOUT_EXAMPLE_STORAGE_ENGINE=1
-DWITHOUT_FEDERATED_STORAGE_ENGINE=1
-DWITHOUT_PARTITION_STORAGE_ENGINE=1

If neither -DWITH_engine_STORAGE_ENGINE nor -DWITHOUT_engine_STORAGE_ENGINE are specified for a given storage engine, the engine is built as a shared module, or excluded if it cannot be built as a shared module.

Feature Options

  • -DCOMPILATION_COMMENT=string

    A descriptive comment about the compilation environment.

  • -DDEFAULT_CHARSET=charset_name

    The server character set. By default, MySQL uses the latin1 (cp1252 West European) character set.

    charset_name may be one of binary, armscii8, ascii, big5, cp1250, cp1251, cp1256, cp1257, cp850, cp852, cp866, cp932, dec8, eucjpms, euckr, gb2312, gbk, geostd8, greek, hebrew, hp8, keybcs2, koi8r, koi8u, latin1, latin2, latin5, latin7, macce, macroman, sjis, swe7, tis620, ucs2, ujis, utf8, utf8mb4, utf16, utf16le, utf32. The permissible character sets are listed in the cmake/character_sets.cmake file as the value of CHARSETS_AVAILABLE.

    This value can be set at server startup with the --character_set_server option.

  • -DDEFAULT_COLLATION=collation_name

    The server collation. By default, MySQL uses latin1_swedish_ci. Use the SHOW COLLATION statement to determine which collations are available for each character set.

    This value can be set at server startup with the --collation_server option.

  • -DENABLE_DEBUG_SYNC=bool

    Whether to compile the Debug Sync facility into the server. This facility is used for testing and debugging. This option is enabled by default, but has no effect unless MySQL is configured with debugging enabled. If debugging is enabled and you want to disable Debug Sync, use -DENABLE_DEBUG_SYNC=0.

    When compiled in, Debug Sync is disabled by default at runtime. To enable it, start mysqld with the --debug-sync-timeout=N option, where N is a timeout value greater than 0. (The default value is 0, which disables Debug Sync.) N becomes the default timeout for individual synchronization points.

    For a description of the Debug Sync facility and how to use synchronization points, see MySQL Internals: Test Synchronization.

  • -DENABLE_DOWNLOADS=bool

    Whether to download optional files. For example, with this option enabled, CMake downloads the Google Test distribution that is used by the test suite to run unit tests.

  • -DENABLE_DTRACE=bool

    Whether to include support for DTrace probes. For information about DTrace, wee Section 5.7, “Tracing mysqld Using DTrace”

  • -DENABLE_GCOV=bool

    Whether to include gcov support (Linux only).

  • -DENABLE_GPROF=bool

    Whether to enable gprof (optimized Linux builds only). This option was added in MySQL 5.6.6.

  • -DENABLED_LOCAL_INFILE=bool

    Whether to enable LOCAL capability in the client library for LOAD DATA INFILE.

    This option controls client-side LOCAL capability, but the capability can be set on the server side at server startup with the --local-infile option. See Section 6.1.6, “Security Issues with LOAD DATA LOCAL”.

  • -DENABLED_PROFILING=bool

    Whether to enable query profiling code (for the SHOW PROFILE and SHOW PROFILES statements).

  • -DIGNORE_AIO_CHECK=bool

    If the -DBUILD_CONFIG=mysql_release option is given on Linux, the libaio library must be linked in by default. If you do not have libaio or do not want to install it, you can suppress the check for it by specifying -DIGNORE_AIO_CHECK=1. This option was added in MySQL 5.6.1.

  • -DMYSQL_MAINTAINER_MODE=bool

    Whether to enable a MySQL maintainer-specific development environment. If enabled, this option causes compiler warnings to become errors.

  • -DMYSQL_PROJECT_NAME=name

    For Windows or Mac OS X, the project name to incorporate into the project file name. This option was added in MySQL 5.6.5.

  • -DMYSQL_TCP_PORT=port_num

    The port number on on which the server listens for TCP/IP connections. The default is 3306.

    This value can be set at server startup with the --port option.

  • -DMYSQL_UNIX_ADDR=file_name

    The Unix socket file path on which the server listens for socket connections. This must be an absolute path name. The default is /tmp/mysql.sock.

    This value can be set at server startup with the --socket option.

  • -DWITH_DEBUG=bool

    Whether to include debugging support.

    Configuring MySQL with debugging support enables you to use the --debug="d,parser_debug" option when you start the server. This causes the Bison parser that is used to process SQL statements to dump a parser trace to the server's standard error output. Typically, this output is written to the error log.

  • -DWITH_DEFAULT_COMPILER_OPTIONS=bool

    Whether to use the flags from cmake/build_configurations/compiler_options.cmake. This option was added in MySQL 5.6.6.

  • -DWITH_DEFAULT_FEATURE_SET=bool

    Whether to use the flags from cmake/build_configurations/feature_set.cmake. This option was added in MySQL 5.6.6.

  • -DWITH_EDITLINE=value

    Which libedit/editline library to use. The permitted values are bundled (the default) and system.

    WITH_EDITLINE was added in MySQL 5.6.12. It replaces WITH_LIBEDIT, which has been removed.

  • -DWITH_EMBEDDED_SERVER=bool

    Whether to build the libmysqld embedded server library.

  • -DWITH_EXTRA_CHARSETS=name

    Which extra character sets to include:

    • all: All character sets. This is the default.

    • complex: Complex character sets.

    • none: No extra character sets.

  • -DWITH_INNODB_MEMCACHED=bool

    Whether to generate memcached shared libraries (libmemcached.so and innodb_engine.so).

  • -DWITH_LIBEVENT=string

    Which libevent library to use. Permitted values are bundled (default), system, and yes. If you specify system or yes, the system libevent library is used if present. If the system library is not found, the bundled libevent library is used. The libevent library is required by InnoDB memcached.

  • -DWITH_LIBEDIT=bool

    Whether to use the libedit library bundled with the distribution.

    WITH_LIBEDIT was removed in MySQL 5.6.12. Use WITH_EDITLINE instead.

  • -DWITH_LIBWRAP=bool

    Whether to include libwrap (TCP wrappers) support.

  • -DWITH_READLINE=bool

    Whether to use the readline library bundled with the distribution. This option was removed in MySQL 5.6.5 because readline is no longer bundled.

  • -DWITH_SSL={ssl_type|path_name}

  • The type of SSL support to include (if any) or the path name to the OpenSSL installation to use.

    • ssl_type can be one of the following values:

      • no: No SSL support. This is the default before MySQL 5.6.6. As of 5.6.6, this is no longer a permitted value and the default is bundled.

      • yes: Use the system SSL library if present, else the library bundled with the distribution.

      • bundled: Use the SSL library bundled with the distribution. This is the default as of MySQL 5.6.6.

      • system: Use the system SSL library.

    • path_name, permitted for MySQL 5.6.7 and after, is the path name to the OpenSSL installation to use. Using this can be preferable to using the ssl_type value of system, for it can prevent CMake from detecting and using an older or incorrect OpenSSL version installed on the system. (Another permitted way to do the same thing is to set the CMAKE_PREFIX_PATH option to path_name.)

    For information about using SSL support, see Section 6.3.9, “Using SSL for Secure Connections”.

  • -DWITH_ZLIB=zlib_type

    Some features require that the server be built with compression library support, such as the COMPRESS() and UNCOMPRESS() functions, and compression of the client/server protocol. The WITH_ZLIB indicates the source of zlib support:

    • bundled: Use the zlib library bundled with the distribution.

    • system: Use the system zlib library. This is the default.

  • -DWITH_UNIXODBC=1

    Enables unixODBC support, for Connector/ODBC.

  • -DWITHOUT_SERVER=bool

    Whether to build without the MySQL server. The default is OFF, which does build the server.

Compiler Flags

To specify compiler flags, set the CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS environment variables before running CMake. Example:

shell> CFLAGS=-DHAVE_EMBEDDED_PRIVILEGE_CONTROL
shell> CXXFLAGS=-DHAVE_EMBEDDED_PRIVILEGE_CONTROL
shell> export CFLAGS CXXFLAGS
shell> cmake [options]

The following flags control configuration features:

  • HAVE_EMBEDDED_PRIVILEGE_CONTROL

    By default, authentication for connections to the embedded server is disabled. To enable connection authentication, define this flag.

CMake Options for Compiling MySQL Cluster

The following options are for use when building MySQL Cluster with the MySQL Cluster sources; they are not currently supported when using sources from the MySQL 5.6 Server tree.

  • -DMEMCACHED_HOME=path

    Perform the build using the memcached (version 1.6 or later) installed in the system directory indicated by path. Files from this installation that are used in the build include the memcached binary, header files, and libraries, as well as the memcached_utilities library and the header file engine_testapp.h.

    You must leave this option unset when building ndbmemcache using the bundled memcached sources (WITH_BUNDLED_MEMCACHED option); in other words, the bundled sources are used by default).

    This option was added in MySQL Cluster NDB 7.2.2.

    While additional CMake options—such as for SASL authorization and for providing dtrace support—are available for use when compiling memcached from external sources, these options are currently not enabled for the memcached sources bundled with MySQL Cluster.

  • -DWITH_BUNDLED_LIBEVENT={ON|OFF}

    Use the libevent included in the MySQL Cluster sources when building MySQL Cluster with ndbmemcached support (MySQL Cluster NDB 7.2.2 and later). Enabled by default. OFF causes the system's libevent to be used instead.

  • -DWITH_BUNDLED_MEMCACHED={ON|OFF}

    Build the memcached sources included in the MySQL Cluster source tree (MySQL Cluster NDB 7.2.3 and later), then use the resulting memcached server when building the ndbmemcache engine. In this case, make install places the memcached binary in the installation bin directory, and the ndbmemcache engine shared object file ndb_engine.so in the installation lib directory.

    This option is ON by default.

  • -DWITH_CLASSPATH=path

    Sets the classpath for building MySQL Cluster Connector for Java. Default is empty. In MySQL Cluster NDB 7.2.9 and later, this option is ignored if -DWITH_NDB_JAVA=OFF is used.

  • -DWITH_ERROR_INSERT={ON|OFF}

    Enables error injection in the NDB kernel. For testing only; not intended for use in building production binaries. Default is OFF.

  • -DWITH_NDBCLUSTER_STORAGE_ENGINE={ON|OFF}

    Build and link in support for the NDB (NDBCLUSTER) storage engine in mysqld. Default is ON.

  • -DWITH_NDBCLUSTER={ON|OFF}

    This is an alias for WITH_NDBCLUSTER_STORAGE_ENGINE.

  • -DWITH_NDBMTD={ON|OFF}

    Build the multi-threaded data node executable ndbmtd. Default is ON.

  • -DWITH_NDB_BINLOG={ON|OFF}

    Enable binary logging by default in the mysqld built using this option. ON by default.

  • -DWITH_NDB_DEBUG={ON|OFF}

    Enable building the debug versions of the MySQL Cluster binaries. OFF by default.

  • -DWITH_NDB_JAVA={ON|OFF}

    Enable building MySQL Cluster with Java support, including ClusterJ.

    This option was added in MySQL Cluster NDB 7.2.9, and is ON by default. If you do not wish to compile MySQL Cluster with Java support, you must disable it explicitly by specifying -DWITH_NDB_JAVA=OFF when running CMake. Otherwise, if Java cannot be found, configuration of the build fails.

  • -DWITH_NDB_PORT=port

    Causes the MySQL Cluster management server (ndb_mgmd) that is built to use this port by default. If this option is unset, the resulting management server tries to use port 1186 by default.

  • -DWITH_NDB_TEST={ON|OFF}

    If enabled, include a set of NDB API test programs. The default is OFF.

2.9.5. Dealing with Problems Compiling MySQL

The solution to many problems involves reconfiguring. If you do reconfigure, take note of the following:

  • If CMake is run after it has previously been run, it may use information that was gathered during its previous invocation. This information is stored in CMakeCache.txt. When CMake starts up, it looks for that file and reads its contents if it exists, on the assumption that the information is still correct. That assumption is invalid when you reconfigure.

  • Each time you run CMake, you must run make again to recompile. However, you may want to remove old object files from previous builds first because they were compiled using different configuration options.

To prevent old object files or configuration information from being used, run these commands on Unix before re-running CMake:

shell> make clean
shell> rm CMakeCache.txt

Or, on Windows:

shell> devenv MySQL.sln /clean
shell> del CMakeCache.txt

If you build out of the source tree, remove and recreate your build directory before re-running CMake. For instructions on building outside of the source tree, see How to Build MySQL Server with CMake.

On some systems, warnings may occur due to differences in system include files. The following list describes other problems that have been found to occur most often when compiling MySQL:

  • To define flags to be used by your C or C++ compilers, specify them using the CFLAGS and CXXFLAGS environment variables. You can also specify the compiler names this way using CC and CXX. For example:

    shell> CC=gcc
    shell> CFLAGS=-O3
    shell> CXX=g++
    shell> CXXFLAGS=-O3
    shell> export CC CFLAGS CXX CXXFLAGS

    To see what flags you might need to specify, invoke mysql_config with the --cflags and --cxxflags options.

  • If compilation fails, check whether the MYSQL_MAINTAINER_MODE option is enabled. This mode causes compiler warnings to become errors, so disabling it may enable compilation to proceed.

  • If your compile fails with errors such as any of the following, you must upgrade your version of make to GNU make:

    make: Fatal error in reader: Makefile, line 18:
    Badly formed macro assignment

    Or:

    make: file `Makefile' line 18: Must be a separator (:

    Or:

    pthread.h: No such file or directory

    Solaris and FreeBSD are known to have troublesome make programs.

    GNU make 3.75 is known to work.

  • The sql_yacc.cc file is generated from sql_yacc.yy. Normally, the build process does not need to create sql_yacc.cc because MySQL comes with a pregenerated copy. However, if you do need to re-create it, you might encounter this error:

    "sql_yacc.yy", line xxx fatal: default action causes potential...

    This is a sign that your version of yacc is deficient. You probably need to install bison (the GNU version of yacc) and use that instead.

    Versions of bison older than 1.75 may report this error:

    sql_yacc.yy:#####: fatal error: maximum table size (32767) exceeded

    The maximum table size is not actually exceeded; the error is caused by bugs in older versions of bison.

For information about acquiring or updating tools, see the system requirements in Section 2.9, “Installing MySQL from Source”.

2.9.6. MySQL Configuration and Third-Party Tools

Third-party tools that need to determine the MySQL version from the MySQL source can read the VERSION file in the top-level source directory. The file lists the pieces of the version separately. For example, if the version is 5.5.8, the file looks like this:

MYSQL_VERSION_MAJOR=5
MYSQL_VERSION_MINOR=5
MYSQL_VERSION_PATCH=8
MYSQL_VERSION_EXTRA=

If the source is not for a General Availability (GA) release, the MYSQL_VERSION_EXTRA value will be nonempty. For example, the value for a Release Candidate release would look like this:

MYSQL_VERSION_EXTRA=rc

To construct a five-digit number from the version components, use this formula:

MYSQL_VERSION_MAJOR*10000 + MYSQL_VERSION_MINOR*100 + MYSQL_VERSION_PATCH

2.10. Postinstallation Setup and Testing

This section discusses post-installation items for Unix systems. If you are using Windows, see Section 2.3.8, “Windows Postinstallation Procedures”.

After installing MySQL, there are some items that you should address. For example:

2.10.1. Unix Postinstallation Procedures

After installing MySQL on Unix, you must initialize the grant tables, start the server, and make sure that the server works satisfactorily. You may also wish to arrange for the server to be started and stopped automatically when your system starts and stops. You should also assign passwords to the accounts in the grant tables.

On Unix, the grant tables are set up by the mysql_install_db program. For some installation methods, this program is run for you automatically if an existing database cannot be found.

  • If you install MySQL on Linux using RPM distributions, the server RPM runs mysql_install_db.

  • Using the native packaging system on many platforms, including Debian Linux, Ubuntu Linux, Gentoo Linux and others, the mysql_install_db command is run for you.

  • If you install MySQL on Mac OS X using a DMG distribution, the installer runs mysql_install_db.

For other platforms and installation types, including generic binary and source installs, you will need to run mysql_install_db yourself.

The following procedure describes how to initialize the grant tables (if that has not previously been done) and start the server. It also suggests some commands that you can use to test whether the server is accessible and working properly. For information about starting and stopping the server automatically, see Section 2.10.1.2, “Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically”.

After you complete the procedure and have the server running, you should assign passwords to the accounts created by mysql_install_db and perhaps restrict access to test databases. For instructions, see Section 2.10.2, “Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts”.

In the examples shown here, the server runs under the user ID of the mysql login account. This assumes that such an account exists. Either create the account if it does not exist, or substitute the name of a different existing login account that you plan to use for running the server. For information about creating the account, see Creating a mysql System User and Group, in Section 2.2, “Installing MySQL on Unix/Linux Using Generic Binaries”.

  1. Change location into the top-level directory of your MySQL installation, represented here by BASEDIR:

    shell> cd BASEDIR

    BASEDIR is the installation directory for your MySQL instance. It is likely to be something like /usr/local/mysql or /usr/local. The following steps assume that you have changed location to this directory.

    You will find several files and subdirectories in the BASEDIR directory. The most important for installation purposes are the bin and scripts subdirectories:

    • The bin directory contains client programs and the server. You should add the full path name of this directory to your PATH environment variable so that your shell finds the MySQL programs properly. See Section 2.12, “Environment Variables”.

    • The scripts directory contains the mysql_install_db script used to initialize the mysql database containing the grant tables that store the server access permissions.

  2. If necessary, ensure that the distribution contents are accessible to mysql. If you installed the distribution as mysql, no further action is required. If you installed the distribution as root, its contents will be owned by root. Change its ownership to mysql by executing the following commands as root in the installation directory. The first command changes the owner attribute of the files to the mysql user. The second changes the group attribute to the mysql group.

    shell> chown -R mysql .
    shell> chgrp -R mysql .
  3. If necessary, run the mysql_install_db program to set up the initial MySQL grant tables containing the privileges that determine how users are permitted to connect to the server. You will need to do this if you used a distribution type for which the installation procedure does not run the program for you.

    shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql

    Typically, mysql_install_db needs to be run only the first time you install MySQL, so you can skip this step if you are upgrading an existing installation, However, mysql_install_db does not overwrite any existing privilege tables, so it should be safe to run in any circumstances.

    It might be necessary to specify other options such as --basedir or --datadir if mysql_install_db does not identify the correct locations for the installation directory or data directory. For example:

    shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql \
             --basedir=/opt/mysql/mysql \
             --datadir=/opt/mysql/mysql/data

    The mysql_install_db script creates the server's data directory with mysql as the owner. Under the data directory, it creates directories for the mysql database that holds the grant tables and the test database that you can use to test MySQL. The script also creates privilege table entries for root and anonymous-user accounts. The accounts have no passwords initially. Section 2.10.2, “Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts”, describes the initial privileges. Briefly, these privileges permit the MySQL root user to do anything, and permit anybody to create or use databases with a name of test or starting with test_. See Section 6.2, “The MySQL Access Privilege System”, for a complete listing and description of the grant tables.

    For a more secure installation, invoke mysql_install_db with the --random-passwords option. This causes it to assign a random password to the MySQL root accounts, set the password expired flag for those accounts, and remove the anonymous-user MySQL accounts. For additional details, see Section 4.4.3, “mysql_install_db — Initialize MySQL Data Directory”. (Install operations using RPMs for Unbreakable Linux Network are unaffected because they do not use mysql_install_db.)

    It is important to make sure that the database directories and files are owned by the mysql login account so that the server has read and write access to them when you run it later. To ensure this if you run mysql_install_db as root, include the --user option as shown. Otherwise, you should execute the script while logged in as mysql, in which case you can omit the --user option from the command.

    If you do not want to have the test database, you can remove it after starting the server, using the instructions in Section 2.10.2, “Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts”.

    If you have trouble with mysql_install_db at this point, see Section 2.10.1.1, “Problems Running mysql_install_db”.

  4. Most of the MySQL installation can be owned by root if you like. The exception is that the data directory must be owned by mysql. To accomplish this, run the following commands as root in the installation directory:

    shell> chown -R root .
    shell> chown -R mysql data
  5. If the plugin directory (the directory named by the plugin_dir system variable) is writable by the server, it may be possible for a user to write executable code to a file in the directory using SELECT ... INTO DUMPFILE. This can be prevented by making plugin_dir read only to the server or by setting --secure-file-priv to a directory where SELECT writes can be made safely.

  6. If you installed MySQL using a source distribution, you may want to optionally copy one of the provided configuration files from the support-files directory into your /etc directory. There are different sample configuration files for different use cases, server types, and CPU and RAM configurations. If you want to use one of these standard files, you should copy it to /etc/my.cnf, or /etc/mysql/my.cnf and edit and check the configuration before starting your MySQL server for the first time.

    If you do not copy one of the standard configuration files, the MySQL server will be started with the default settings.

    If you want MySQL to start automatically when you boot your machine, you can copy support-files/mysql.server to the location where your system has its startup files. More information can be found in the mysql.server script itself, and in Section 2.10.1.2, “Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically”.

  7. Start the MySQL server:

    shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &

    It is important that the MySQL server be run using an unprivileged (non-root) login account. To ensure this if you run mysqld_safe as root, include the --user option as shown. Otherwise, you should execute the script while logged in as mysql, in which case you can omit the --user option from the command.

    For further instructions for running MySQL as an unprivileged user, see Section 6.1.5, “How to Run MySQL as a Normal User”.

    If the command fails immediately and prints mysqld ended, look for information in the error log (which by default is the host_name.err file in the data directory).

    If you neglected to create the grant tables by running mysql_install_db before proceeding to this step, the following message appears in the error log file when you start the server:

    mysqld: Can't find file: 'host.frm'

    This error also occurs if you run mysql_install_db as root without the --user option. Remove the data directory and run mysql_install_db with the --user option as described previously.

    If you have other problems starting the server, see Section 2.10.1.3, “Starting and Troubleshooting the MySQL Server”. For more information about mysqld_safe, see Section 4.3.2, “mysqld_safe — MySQL Server Startup Script”.

  8. Use mysqladmin to verify that the server is running. The following commands provide simple tests to check whether the server is up and responding to connections:

    shell> bin/mysqladmin version
    shell> bin/mysqladmin variables

    The output from mysqladmin version varies slightly depending on your platform and version of MySQL, but should be similar to that shown here:

    shell> bin/mysqladmin version
    mysqladmin  Ver 14.12 Distrib 5.6.15, for pc-linux-gnu on i686
    ...
    
    Server version          5.6.15
    Protocol version        10
    Connection              Localhost via UNIX socket
    UNIX socket             /var/lib/mysql/mysql.sock
    Uptime:                 14 days 5 hours 5 min 21 sec
    
    Threads: 1  Questions: 366  Slow queries: 0
    Opens: 0  Flush tables: 1  Open tables: 19
    Queries per second avg: 0.000

    To see what else you can do with mysqladmin, invoke it with the --help option.

  9. Verify that you can shut down the server:

    shell> bin/mysqladmin -u root shutdown
  10. Verify that you can start the server again. Do this by using mysqld_safe or by invoking mysqld directly. For example:

    shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &

    If mysqld_safe fails, see Section 2.10.1.3, “Starting and Troubleshooting the MySQL Server”.

  11. Run some simple tests to verify that you can retrieve information from the server. The output should be similar to what is shown here:

    shell> bin/mysqlshow
    +--------------------+
    |     Databases      |
    +--------------------+
    | information_schema |
    | mysql              |
    | test               |
    +--------------------+
    
    shell> bin/mysqlshow mysql
    Database: mysql
    +---------------------------+
    |          Tables           |
    +---------------------------+
    | columns_priv              |
    | db                        |
    | event                     |
    | func                      |
    | help_category             |
    | help_keyword              |
    | help_relation             |
    | help_topic                |
    | host                      |
    | plugin                    |
    | proc                      |
    | procs_priv                |
    | servers                   |
    | tables_priv               |
    | time_zone                 |
    | time_zone_leap_second     |
    | time_zone_name            |
    | time_zone_transition      |
    | time_zone_transition_type |
    | user                      |
    +---------------------------+
    
    shell> bin/mysql -e "SELECT Host,Db,User FROM db" mysql
    +------+--------+------+
    | host | db     | user |
    +------+--------+------+
    | %    | test   |      |
    | %    | test_% |      |
    +------+--------+------+
  12. There is a benchmark suite in the sql-bench directory (under the MySQL installation directory) that you can use to compare how MySQL performs on different platforms. The benchmark suite is written in Perl. It requires the Perl DBI module that provides a database-independent interface to the various databases, and some other additional Perl modules:

    DBI
    DBD::mysql
    Data::Dumper
    Data::ShowTable

    These modules can be obtained from CPAN (http://www.cpan.org/). See also Section 2.13.1, “Installing Perl on Unix”.

    The sql-bench/Results directory contains the results from many runs against different databases and platforms. To run all tests, execute these commands:

    shell> cd sql-bench
    shell> perl run-all-tests

    If you do not have the sql-bench directory, you probably installed MySQL using RPM files other than the source RPM. (The source RPM includes the sql-bench benchmark directory.) In this case, you must first install the benchmark suite before you can use it. There are separate benchmark RPM files named mysql-bench-VERSION.i386.rpm that contain benchmark code and data.

    If you have a source distribution, there are also tests in its tests subdirectory that you can run. For example, to run auto_increment.tst, execute this command from the top-level directory of your source distribution:

    shell> mysql -vvf test < ./tests/auto_increment.tst

    The expected result of the test can be found in the ./tests/auto_increment.res file.

  13. At this point, you should have the server running. However, none of the initial MySQL accounts have a password, and the server permits permissive access to test databases. To tighten security, follow the instructions in Section 2.10.2, “Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts”.

The MySQL 5.6 installation procedure creates time zone tables in the mysql database but does not populate them. To do so, use the instructions in Section 10.6, “MySQL Server Time Zone Support”.

To make it more convenient to invoke programs installed in the bin directory under the installation directory, you can add that directory to your PATH environment variable setting. That enables you to run a program by typing only its name, not its entire path name. See Section 4.2.4, “Setting Environment Variables”.

You can set up new accounts using the bin/mysql_setpermission script if you install the DBI and DBD::mysql Perl modules. See Section 4.6.14, “mysql_setpermission — Interactively Set Permissions in Grant Tables”. For Perl module installation instructions, see Section 2.13, “Perl Installation Notes”.

If you would like to use mysqlaccess and have the MySQL distribution in some nonstandard location, you must change the location where mysqlaccess expects to find the mysql client. Edit the bin/mysqlaccess script at approximately line 18. Search for a line that looks like this:

$MYSQL     = '/usr/local/bin/mysql';    # path to mysql executable

Change the path to reflect the location where mysql actually is stored on your system. If you do not do this, a Broken pipe error will occur when you run mysqlaccess.

2.10.1.1. Problems Running mysql_install_db

The purpose of the mysql_install_db script is to generate new MySQL privilege tables. It does not overwrite existing MySQL privilege tables, and it does not affect any other data.

If you want to re-create your privilege tables, first stop the mysqld server if it is running. Then rename the mysql directory under the data directory to save it, and then run mysql_install_db. Suppose that your current directory is the MySQL installation directory and that mysql_install_db is located in the bin directory and the data directory is named data. To rename the mysql database and re-run mysql_install_db, use these commands.

shell> mv data/mysql data/mysql.old
shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql

When you run mysql_install_db, you might encounter the following problems:

  • mysql_install_db fails to install the grant tables

    You may find that mysql_install_db fails to install the grant tables and terminates after displaying the following messages:

    Starting mysqld daemon with databases from XXXXXX
    mysqld ended

    In this case, you should examine the error log file very carefully. The log should be located in the directory XXXXXX named by the error message and should indicate why mysqld did not start. If you do not understand what happened, include the log when you post a bug report. See Section 1.7, “How to Report Bugs or Problems”.

  • There is a mysqld process running

    This indicates that the server is running, in which case the grant tables have probably been created already. If so, there is no need to run mysql_install_db at all because it needs to be run only once (when you install MySQL the first time).

  • Installing a second mysqld server does not work when one server is running

    This can happen when you have an existing MySQL installation, but want to put a new installation in a different location. For example, you might have a production installation, but you want to create a second installation for testing purposes. Generally the problem that occurs when you try to run a second server is that it tries to use a network interface that is in use by the first server. In this case, you should see one of the following error messages:

    Can't start server: Bind on TCP/IP port:
    Address already in use
    Can't start server: Bind on unix socket...

    For instructions on setting up multiple servers, see Section 5.6, “Running Multiple MySQL Instances on One Machine”.

  • You do not have write access to the /tmp directory

    If you do not have write access to create temporary files or a Unix socket file in the default location (the /tmp directory) or the TMP_DIR environment variable, if it has been set, an error occurs when you run mysql_install_db or the mysqld server.

    You can specify different locations for the temporary directory and Unix socket file by executing these commands prior to starting mysql_install_db or mysqld, where some_tmp_dir is the full path name to some directory for which you have write permission:

    shell> TMPDIR=/some_tmp_dir/
    shell> MYSQL_UNIX_PORT=/some_tmp_dir/mysql.sock
    shell> export TMPDIR MYSQL_UNIX_PORT

    Then you should be able to run mysql_install_db and start the server with these commands:

    shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
    shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &

    If mysql_install_db is located in the scripts directory, modify the first command to scripts/mysql_install_db.

    See Section C.5.4.5, “How to Protect or Change the MySQL Unix Socket File”, and Section 2.12, “Environment Variables”.

There are some alternatives to running the mysql_install_db script provided in the MySQL distribution:

  • If you want the initial privileges to be different from the standard defaults, you can modify mysql_install_db before you run it. However, it is preferable to use GRANT and REVOKE to change the privileges after the grant tables have been set up. In other words, you can run mysql_install_db, and then use mysql -u root mysql to connect to the server as the MySQL root user so that you can issue the necessary GRANT and REVOKE statements.

    If you want to install MySQL on several machines with the same privileges, you can put the GRANT and REVOKE statements in a file and execute the file as a script using mysql after running mysql_install_db. For example:

    shell> scripts/mysql_install_db --user=mysql
    shell> bin/mysql -u root < your_script_file

    By doing this, you can avoid having to issue the statements manually on each machine.

  • It is possible to re-create the grant tables completely after they have previously been created. You might want to do this if you are just learning how to use GRANT and REVOKE and have made so many modifications after running mysql_install_db that you want to wipe out the tables and start over.

    To re-create the grant tables, remove all the .frm, .MYI, and .MYD files in the mysql database directory. Then run the mysql_install_db script again.

  • You can start mysqld manually using the --skip-grant-tables option and add the privilege information yourself using mysql:

    shell> bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql --skip-grant-tables &
    shell> bin/mysql mysql

    From mysql, manually execute the SQL commands contained in mysql_install_db. Make sure that you run mysqladmin flush-privileges or mysqladmin reload afterward to tell the server to reload the grant tables.

    Note that by not using mysql_install_db, you not only have to populate the grant tables manually, you also have to create them first.

2.10.1.2. Starting and Stopping MySQL Automatically

Generally, you start the mysqld server in one of these ways:

The mysqld_safe and mysql.server scripts, Solaris/OpenSolaris SMF, and the Mac OS X Startup Item (or MySQL Preference Pane) can be used to start the server manually, or automatically at system startup time. mysql.server and the Startup Item also can be used to stop the server.

To start or stop the server manually using the mysql.server script, invoke it with start or stop arguments:

shell> mysql.server start
shell> mysql.server stop

Before mysql.server starts the server, it changes location to the MySQL installation directory, and then invokes mysqld_safe. If you want the server to run as some specific user, add an appropriate user option to the [mysqld] group of the /etc/my.cnf option file, as shown later in this section. (It is possible that you will need to edit mysql.server if you've installed a binary distribution of MySQL in a nonstandard location. Modify it to change location into the proper directory before it runs mysqld_safe. If you do this, your modified version of mysql.server may be overwritten if you upgrade MySQL in the future, so you should make a copy of your edited version that you can reinstall.)

mysql.server stop stops the server by sending a signal to it. You can also stop the server manually by executing mysqladmin shutdown.

To start and stop MySQL automatically on your server, you need to add start and stop commands to the appropriate places in your /etc/rc* files.

If you use the Linux server RPM package (MySQL-server-VERSION.rpm), or a native Linux package installation, the mysql.server script may be installed in the /etc/init.d directory with the name mysql. See Section 2.5.1, “Installing MySQL on Linux Using RPM Packages”, for more information on the Linux RPM packages.

Some vendors provide RPM packages that install a startup script under a different name such as mysqld.

If you install MySQL from a source distribution or using a binary distribution format that does not install mysql.server automatically, you can install it manually. The script can be found in the support-files directory under the MySQL installation directory or in a MySQL source tree.

To install mysql.server manually, copy it to the /etc/init.d directory with the name mysql, and then make it executable. Do this by changing location into the appropriate directory where mysql.server is located and executing these commands:

shell> cp mysql.server /etc/init.d/mysql
shell> chmod +x /etc/init.d/mysql
Note

Older Red Hat systems use the /etc/rc.d/init.d directory rather than /etc/init.d. Adjust the preceding commands accordingly. Alternatively, first create /etc/init.d as a symbolic link that points to /etc/rc.d/init.d:

shell> cd /etc
shell> ln -s rc.d/init.d .

After installing the script, the commands needed to activate it to run at system startup depend on your operating system. On Linux, you can use chkconfig:

shell> chkconfig --add mysql

On some Linux systems, the following command also seems to be necessary to fully enable the mysql script:

shell> chkconfig --level 345 mysql on

On FreeBSD, startup scripts generally should go in /usr/local/etc/rc.d/. The rc(8) manual page states that scripts in this directory are executed only if their basename matches the *.sh shell file name pattern. Any other files or directories present within the directory are silently ignored. In other words, on FreeBSD, you should install the mysql.server script as /usr/local/etc/rc.d/mysql.server.sh to enable automatic startup.

As an alternative to the preceding setup, some operating systems also use /etc/rc.local or /etc/init.d/boot.local to start additional services on startup. To start up MySQL using this method, you could append a command like the one following to the appropriate startup file:

/bin/sh -c 'cd /usr/local/mysql; ./bin/mysqld_safe --user=mysql &'

For other systems, consult your operating system documentation to see how to install startup scripts.

You can add options for mysql.server in a global /etc/my.cnf file. A typical /etc/my.cnf file might look like this:

[mysqld]
datadir=/usr/local/mysql/var
socket=/var/tmp/mysql.sock
port=3306
user=mysql

[mysql.server]
basedir=/usr/local/mysql

The mysql.server script supports the following options: basedir, datadir, and pid-file. If specified, they must be placed in an option file, not on the command line. mysql.server supports only start and stop as command-line arguments.

The following table shows which option groups the server and each startup script read from option files.

Table 2.14. MySQL Startup scripts and supported server option groups

ScriptOption Groups
mysqld[mysqld], [server], [mysqld-major_version]
mysqld_safe[mysqld], [server], [mysqld_safe]
mysql.server[mysqld], [mysql.server], [server]

[mysqld-major_version] means that groups with names like [mysqld-5.5] and [mysqld-5.6] are read by servers having versions 5.5.x, 5.6.x, and so forth. This feature can be used to specify options that can be read only by servers within a given release series.

For backward compatibility, mysql.server also reads the [mysql_server] group and mysqld_safe also reads the [safe_mysqld] group. However, you should update your option files to use the [mysql.server] and [mysqld_safe] groups instead when using MySQL 5.6.

For more information on MySQL configuration files and their structure and contents, see Section 4.2.3.3, “Using Option Files”.

2.10.1.3. Starting and Troubleshooting the MySQL Server

This section provides troubleshooting suggestions for problems starting the server on Unix. If you are using Windows, see Section 2.3.6, “Troubleshooting a Microsoft Windows MySQL Server Installation”.

If you have problems starting the server, here are some things to try:

  • Check the error log to see why the server does not start. Log files are located in the data directory (typically C:\Program Files\MySQL\MySQL Server 5.6\data on Windows, /usr/local/mysql/data for a Unix binary distribution, and /usr/local/var for a Unix source distribution). Look in the data directory for files with names of the form host_name.err and host_name.log, where host_name is the name of your server host. Then examine the last few lines of these files. On Unix, use tail to display them:

    shell> tail host_name.err
    shell> tail host_name.log
  • Specify any special options needed by the storage engines you are using. You can create a my.cnf file and specify startup options for the engines that you plan to use. If you are going to use storage engines that support transactional tables (InnoDB, NDB), be sure that you have them configured the way you want before starting the server. If you are using InnoDB tables, see Section 14.2.1.2, “Configuring InnoDB” for guidelines and Section 14.2.6, “InnoDB Startup Options and System Variables” for option syntax.

    Although storage engines use default values for options that you omit, Oracle recommends that you review the available options and specify explicit values for any options whose defaults are not appropriate for your installation.

  • Make sure that the server knows where to find the data directory. The mysqld server uses this directory as its current directory. This is where it expects to find databases and where it expects to write log files. The server also writes the pid (process ID) file in the data directory.

    The default data directory location is hardcoded when the server is compiled. To determine what the default path settings are, invoke mysqld with the --verbose and --help options. If the data directory is located somewhere else on your system, specify that location with the --datadir option to mysqld or mysqld_safe, on the command line or in an option file. Otherwise, the server will not work properly. As an alternative to the --datadir option, you can specify mysqld the location of the base directory under which MySQL is installed with the --basedir, and mysqld looks for the data directory there.

    To check the effect of specifying path options, invoke mysqld with those options followed by the --verbose and --help options. For example, if you change location into the directory where mysqld is installed and then run the following command, it shows the effect of starting the server with a base directory of /usr/local:

    shell> ./mysqld --basedir=/usr/local --verbose --help

    You can specify other options such as --datadir as well, but --verbose and --help must be the last options.

    Once you determine the path settings you want, start the server without --verbose and --help.

    If mysqld is currently running, you can find out what path settings it is using by executing this command:

    shell> mysqladmin variables

    Or:

    shell> mysqladmin -h host_name variables

    host_name is the name of the MySQL server host.

  • Make sure that the server can access the data directory. The ownership and permissions of the data directory and its contents must allow the server to read and modify them.

    If you get Errcode 13 (which means Permission denied) when starting mysqld, this means that the privileges of the data directory or its contents do not permit server access. In this case, you change the permissions for the involved files and directories so that the server has the right to use them. You can also start the server as root, but this raises security issues and should be avoided.

    On Unix, change location into the data directory and check the ownership of the data directory and its contents to make sure the server has access. For example, if the data directory is /usr/local/mysql/var, use this command:

    shell> ls -la /usr/local/mysql/var

    If the data directory or its files or subdirectories are not owned by the login account that you use for running the server, change their ownership to that account. If the account is named mysql, use these commands:

    shell> chown -R mysql /usr/local/mysql/var
    shell> chgrp -R mysql /usr/local/mysql/var

    Even with correct ownership, MySQL might fail to start up if there is other security software running on your system that manages application access to various parts of the file system. In this case, reconfigure that software to enable mysqld to access the directories it uses during normal operation.

  • Verify that the network interfaces the server wants to use are available.

    If either of the following errors occur, it means that some other program (perhaps another mysqld server) is using the TCP/IP port or Unix socket file that mysqld is trying to use:

    Can't start server: Bind on TCP/IP port: Address already in use
    Can't start server: Bind on unix socket...

    Use ps to determine whether you have another mysqld server running. If so, shut down the server before starting mysqld again. (If another server is running, and you really want to run multiple servers, you can find information about how to do so in Section 5.6, “Running Multiple MySQL Instances on One Machine”.)

    If no other server is running, execute the command telnet your_host_name tcp_ip_port_number. (The default MySQL port number is 3306.) Then press Enter a couple of times. If you do not get an error message like telnet: Unable to connect to remote host: Connection refused, some other program is using the TCP/IP port that mysqld is trying to use. Track down what program this is and disable it, or tell mysqld to listen to a different port with the --port option. In this case, specify the same non-default port number for client programs when connecting to the server using TCP/IP.

    Another reason the port might be inaccessible is that you have a firewall running that blocks connections to it. If so, modify the firewall settings to permit access to the port.

    If the server starts but you cannot connect to it, make sure that you have an entry in /etc/hosts that looks like this:

    127.0.0.1       localhost
  • If you cannot get mysqld to start, try to make a trace file to find the problem by using the --debug option. See Section 23.4.3, “The DBUG Package”.

2.10.2. Securing the Initial MySQL Accounts

Part of the MySQL installation process is to set up the mysql database that contains the grant tables:

The mysql.user grant table defines the initial MySQL user accounts and their access privileges:

  • Some accounts have the user name root. These are superuser accounts that have all privileges and can do anything. The initial root account passwords are empty, so anyone can connect to the MySQL server as root without a password and be granted all privileges.

    • On Windows, root accounts are created that permit connections from the local host only. Connections can be made by specifying the host name localhost, the IP address 127.0.0.1, or the IPv6 address ::1. If the user selects the Enable root access from remote machines option during installation, the Windows installer creates another root account that permits connections from any host.

    • On Unix, each root account permits connections from the local host. Connections can be made by specifying the host name localhost, the IP address 127.0.0.1, the IPv6 address ::1, or the actual host name or IP address.

    An attempt to connect to the host 127.0.0.1 normally resolves to the localhost account. However, this fails if the server is run with the --skip-name-resolve option, so the 127.0.0.1 account is useful in that case. The ::1 account is used for IPv6 connections.

  • Some accounts are for anonymous users. These have an empty user name. The anonymous accounts have no password, so anyone can use them to connect to the MySQL server.

    • On Windows, there is one anonymous account that permits connections from the local host. Connections can be made by specifying a host name of localhost.

    • On Unix, each anonymous account permits connections from the local host. Connections can be made by specifying a host name of localhost for one of the accounts, or the actual host name or IP address for the other.

To display which accounts exist in the mysql.user table and check whether their passwords are empty, use the following statement:

mysql> SELECT User, Host, Password FROM mysql.user;
+------+--------------------+----------+
| User | Host               | Password |
+------+--------------------+----------+
| root | localhost          |          |
| root | myhost.example.com |          |
| root | 127.0.0.1          |          |
| root | ::1                |          |
|      | localhost          |          |
|      | myhost.example.com |          |
+------+--------------------+----------+

This output indicates that there are several root and anonymous-user accounts, none of which have passwords. The output might differ on your system, but the presence of accounts with empty passwords means that your MySQL installation is unprotected until you do something about it:

  • You should assign a password to each MySQL root account.

  • If you want to prevent clients from connecting as anonymous users without a password, you should either assign a password to each anonymous account or else remove the accounts.

In addition, the mysql.db table contains rows that permit all accounts to access the test database and other databases with names that start with test_. This is true even for accounts that otherwise have no special privileges such as the default anonymous accounts. This is convenient for testing but inadvisable on production servers. Administrators who want database access restricted only to accounts that have permissions granted explicitly for that purpose should remove these mysql.db table rows.

The following instructions describe how to set up passwords for the initial MySQL accounts, first for the root accounts, then for the anonymous accounts. The instructions also cover how to remove the anonymous accounts, should you prefer not to permit anonymous access at all, and describe how to remove permissive access to test databases. Replace newpwd in the examples with the password that you want to use. Replace host_name with the name of the server host. You can determine this name from the output of the preceding SELECT statement. For the output shown, host_name is myhost.example.com.

Note

For additional information about setting passwords, see Section 6.3.5, “Assigning Account Passwords”. If you forget your root password after setting it, see Section C.5.4.1, “How to Reset the Root Password”.

You might want to defer setting the passwords until later, to avoid the need to specify them while you perform additional setup or testing. However, be sure to set them before using your installation for production purposes.

To set up additional accounts, see Section 6.3.2, “Adding User Accounts”.

Assigning root Account Passwords

The root account passwords can be set several ways. The following discussion demonstrates three methods:

To assign passwords using SET PASSWORD, connect to the server as root and issue a SET PASSWORD statement for each root account listed in the mysql.user table. Be sure to encrypt the password using the PASSWORD() function.

For Windows, do this:

shell> mysql -u root
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR 'root'@'localhost' = PASSWORD('newpwd');
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR 'root'@'127.0.0.1' = PASSWORD('newpwd');
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR 'root'@'::1' = PASSWORD('newpwd');
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR 'root'@'%' = PASSWORD('newpwd');

The last statement is unnecessary if the mysql.user table has no root account with a host value of %.

For Unix, do this:

shell> mysql -u root
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR 'root'@'localhost' = PASSWORD('newpwd');
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR 'root'@'127.0.0.1' = PASSWORD('newpwd');
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR 'root'@'::1' = PASSWORD('newpwd');
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR 'root'@'host_name' = PASSWORD('newpwd');

You can also use a single statement that assigns a password to all root accounts by using UPDATE to modify the mysql.user table directly. This method works on any platform:

shell> mysql -u root
mysql> UPDATE mysql.user SET Password = PASSWORD('newpwd')
    ->     WHERE User = 'root';
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

The FLUSH statement causes the server to reread the grant tables. Without it, the password change remains unnoticed by the server until you restart it.

To assign passwords to the root accounts using mysqladmin, execute the following commands:

shell> mysqladmin -u root password "newpwd"
shell> mysqladmin -u root -h host_name password "newpwd"

Those commands apply both to Windows and to Unix. The double quotation marks around the password are not always necessary, but you should use them if the password contains spaces or other characters that are special to your command interpreter.

The mysqladmin method of setting the root account passwords does not work for the 'root'@'127.0.0.1' or 'root'@'::1' account. Use the SET PASSWORD method shown earlier.

After the root passwords have been set, you must supply the appropriate password whenever you connect as root to the server. For example, to shut down the server with mysqladmin, use this command:

shell> mysqladmin -u root -p shutdown
Enter password: (enter root password here)

Assigning Anonymous Account Passwords

The mysql commands in the following instructions include a -p option based on the assumption that you have set the root account passwords using the preceding instructions and must specify that password when connecting to the server.

To assign passwords to the anonymous accounts, connect to the server as root, then use either SET PASSWORD or UPDATE. Be sure to encrypt the password using the PASSWORD() function.

To use SET PASSWORD on Windows, do this:

shell> mysql -u root -p
Enter password: (enter root password here)
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR ''@'localhost' = PASSWORD('newpwd');

To use SET PASSWORD on Unix, do this:

shell> mysql -u root -p
Enter password: (enter root password here)
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR ''@'localhost' = PASSWORD('newpwd');
mysql> SET PASSWORD FOR ''@'host_name' = PASSWORD('newpwd');

To set the anonymous-user account passwords with a single UPDATE statement, do this (on any platform):

shell> mysql -u root -p
Enter password: (enter root password here)
mysql> UPDATE mysql.user SET Password = PASSWORD('newpwd')
    ->     WHERE User = '';
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

The FLUSH statement causes the server to reread the grant tables. Without it, the password change remains unnoticed by the server until you restart it.

Removing Anonymous Accounts

If you prefer to remove any anonymous accounts rather than assigning them passwords, do so as follows on Windows:

shell> mysql -u root -p
Enter password: (enter root password here)
mysql> DROP USER ''@'localhost';

On Unix, remove the anonymous accounts like this:

shell> mysql -u root -p
Enter password: (enter root password here)
mysql> DROP USER ''@'localhost';
mysql> DROP USER ''@'host_name';

Securing Test Databases

By default, the mysql.db table contains rows that permit access by any user to the test database and other databases with names that start with test_. (These rows have an empty User column value, which for access-checking purposes matches any user name.) This means that such databases can be used even by accounts that otherwise possess no privileges. If you want to remove any-user access to test databases, do so as follows:

shell> mysql -u root -p
Enter password: (enter root password here)
mysql> DELETE FROM mysql.db WHERE Db LIKE 'test%';
mysql> FLUSH PRIVILEGES;

The FLUSH statement causes the server to reread the grant tables. Without it, the privilege change remains unnoticed by the server until you restart it.

With the preceding change, only users who have global database privileges or privileges granted explicitly for the test database can use it. However, if you do not want the database to exist at all, drop it:

mysql> DROP DATABASE test;
Note

On Windows, you can also perform the process described in this section during installation with MySQL Installer (see Section 2.3.3, “Installing MySQL on Microsoft Windows Using MySQL Installer”). On all platforms, the MySQL distribution includes mysql_secure_installation, a command-line utility that automates much of the process of securing a MySQL installation. And MySQL Workbench is available on all platforms, and also offers the ability to manage user accounts (see Chapter 25, MySQL Workbench ).

2.11. Upgrading or Downgrading MySQL

This section describes the steps to upgrade or downgrade a MySQL installation.

Upgrading is a common procedure, as you pick up bug fixes within the same MySQL release series or significant features between major MySQL releases. You perform this procedure first on some test systems to make sure everything works smoothly, and then on the production systems.

Downgrading is less common. Typically, you undo an upgrade because of some compatibility or performance issue that occurs on a production system, and was not uncovered during initial upgrade verification on the test systems. As with the upgrade procedure, perform and verify the downgrade procedure on some test systems first, before using it on a production system.

2.11.1. Upgrading MySQL

As a general rule, to upgrade from one release series to another, go to the next series rather than skipping a series. To upgrade from a release series previous to MySQL 5.5, upgrade to each successive release series in turn until you have reached MySQL 5.5, and then proceed with the upgrade to MySQL 5.6. For example, if you currently are running MySQL 5.1 and wish to upgrade to a newer series, upgrade to MySQL 5.5 first before upgrading to 5.6, and so forth. For information on upgrading to MySQL 5.5, see the MySQL 5.5 Reference Manual.

To upgrade to MySQL 5.6, use the items in the following checklist as a guide:

  • Before any upgrade, back up your databases, including the mysql database that contains the grant tables. See Section 7.2, “Database Backup Methods”.

  • Read all the notes in Section 2.11.1.1, “Upgrading from MySQL 5.5 to 5.6”. These notes enable you to identify upgrade issues that apply to your current MySQL installation. Some incompatibilities discussed in that section require your attention before upgrading. Others require some action after upgrading.

  • Read the Release Notes as well, which provide information about features that are new in MySQL 5.6 or differ from from those found in earlier MySQL releases.

  • After upgrading to a new version of MySQL, run mysql_upgrade (see Section 4.4.7, “mysql_upgrade — Check and Upgrade MySQL Tables”). This program checks your tables, and attempts to repair them if necessary. It also updates your grant tables to make sure that they have the current structure so that you can take advantage of any new capabilities. (Some releases of MySQL introduce changes to the structure of the grant tables to add new privileges or features.)

    mysql_upgrade does not upgrade the contents of the help tables. For upgrade instructions, see Section 5.1.10, “Server-Side Help”.

    mysql_upgrade should not be used when the server is running with --gtid-mode=ON, since it may make changes in nontransactional system tables in the mysql database, many of which are MyISAM and cannot be changed to use a different storage engine. See GTID mode and mysql_upgrade.

  • If you run MySQL Server on Windows, see Section 2.3.7, “Upgrading MySQL on Windows”.

  • If you use replication, see Section 16.4.3, “Upgrading a Replication Setup”, for information on upgrading your replication setup.

  • If you use InnoDB, consider setting innodb_fast_shutdown to 0 before shutting down and upgrading your server. When you set innodb_fast_shutdown to 0, InnoDB does a slow shutdown, a full purge and an insert buffer merge before shutting down, which ensures that all data files are fully prepared in case the upgrade process modifies the file format.

  • If you upgrade an installation originally produced by installing multiple RPM packages, it is best to upgrade all the packages, not just some. For example, if you previously installed the server and client RPMs, do not upgrade just the server RPM.

  • If you have created a user-defined function (UDF) with a given name and upgrade MySQL to a version that implements a new built-in function with the same name, the UDF becomes inaccessible. To correct this, use DROP FUNCTION to drop the UDF, and then use CREATE FUNCTION to re-create the UDF with a different nonconflicting name. The same is true if the new version of MySQL implements a built-in function with the same name as an existing stored function. See Section 9.2.4, “Function Name Parsing and Resolution”, for the rules describing how the server interprets references to different kinds of functions.

For upgrades between versions of a MySQL release series that has reached General Availability status, you can move the MySQL format files and data files between different versions on systems with the same architecture. For upgrades to a version of a MySQL release series that is in development status, that is not necessarily true. Use of development releases is at your own risk.

If you are cautious about using new versions, you can always rename your old mysqld before installing a newer one. For example, if you are using a version of MySQL 5.5 and want to upgrade to 5.6, rename your current server from mysqld to mysqld-5.5. If your new mysqld then does something unexpected, you can simply shut it down and restart with your old mysqld.

If problems occur, such as that the new mysqld server does not start or that you cannot connect without a password, verify that you do not have an old my.cnf file from your previous installation. You can check this with the --print-defaults option (for example, mysqld --print-defaults). If this command displays anything other than the program name, you have an active my.cnf file that affects server or client operation.

If, after an upgrade, you experience problems with compiled client programs, such as Commands out of sync or unexpected core dumps, you probably have used old header or library files when compiling your programs. In this case, check the date for your mysql.h file and libmysqlclient.a library to verify that they are from the new MySQL distribution. If not, recompile your programs with the new headers and libraries. Recompilation might also be necessary for programs compiled against the shared client library if the library major version number has changed (for example from libmysqlclient.so.15 to libmysqlclient.so.16.

If your MySQL installation contains a large amount of data that might take a long time to convert after an in-place upgrade, you might find it useful to create a dummy database instance for assessing what conversions might be needed and the work involved to perform them. Make a copy of your MySQL instance that contains a full copy of the mysql database, plus all other databases without data. Run your upgrade procedure on this dummy instance to see what actions might be needed so that you can better evaluate the work involved when performing actual data conversion on your original database instance.

It is a good idea to rebuild and reinstall the Perl DBD::mysql module whenever you install a new release of MySQL. The same applies to other MySQL interfaces as well, such as PHP mysql extensions and the Python MySQLdb module.

2.11.1.1. Upgrading from MySQL 5.5 to 5.6

Note

Beginning with MySQL 5.6.6, several MySQL Server parameters have defaults that differ from previous releases. See the notes regarding these changes later in this section, particularly regarding overriding them to preserve backward compatibility if that is a concern.

Note

It is good practice to back up your data before installing any new version of software. Although MySQL works very hard to ensure a high level of quality, protect your data by making a backup.

To upgrade to 5.6 from any previous version, MySQL recommends that you dump your tables with mysqldump before upgrading and reload the dump file after upgrading. Use the --all-databases option to include all databases in the dump. If your databases include stored programs, use the --routines and --events options as well.

In general, do the following when upgrading from MySQL 5.5 to 5.6:

  • Read all the items in these sections to see whether any of them might affect your applications:

    • Section 2.11.1, “Upgrading MySQL”, has general update information.

    • The items in the change lists provided later in this section enable you to identify upgrade issues that apply to your current MySQL installation. Some incompatibilities discussed there require your attention before upgrading. Others should be dealt with after upgrading.

    • The MySQL 5.6 Release Notes describe significant new features you can use in 5.6 or that differ from those found in earlier MySQL releases. Some of these changes may result in incompatibilities.

    Note particularly any changes that are marked Known issue or Incompatible change. These incompatibilities with earlier versions of MySQL may require your attention before you upgrade. Our aim is to avoid these changes, but occasionally they are necessary to correct problems that would be worse than an incompatibility between releases. If any upgrade issue applicable to your installation involves an incompatibility that requires special handling, follow the instructions given in the incompatibility description. Sometimes this involves dumping and reloading tables, or use of a statement such as CHECK TABLE or REPAIR TABLE.

    For dump and reload instructions, see Section 2.11.4, “Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes”. Any procedure that involves REPAIR TABLE with the USE_FRM option must be done before upgrading. Use of this statement with a version of MySQL different from the one used to create the table (that is, using it after upgrading) may damage the table. See Section 13.7.2.5, “REPAIR TABLE Syntax”.

  • Before upgrading to a new version of MySQL, Section 2.11.3, “Checking Whether Tables or Indexes Must Be Rebuilt”, to see whether changes to table formats or to character sets or collations were made between your current version of MySQL and the version to which you are upgrading. If so and these changes result in an incompatibility between MySQL versions, you will need to upgrade the affected tables using the instructions in Section 2.11.4, “Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes”.

  • After upgrading to a new version of MySQL, run mysql_upgrade (see Section 4.4.7, “mysql_upgrade — Check and Upgrade MySQL Tables”). This program checks your tables, and attempts to repair them if necessary. It also updates your grant tables to make sure that they have the current structure so that you can take advantage of any new capabilities. (Some releases of MySQL introduce changes to the structure of the grant tables to add new privileges or features.)

    mysql_upgrade does not upgrade the contents of the help tables. For upgrade instructions, see Section 5.1.10, “Server-Side Help”.

  • If you run MySQL Server on Windows, see Section 2.3.7, “Upgrading MySQL on Windows”.

  • If you use replication, see Section 16.4.3, “Upgrading a Replication Setup”, for information on upgrading your replication setup.

If your MySQL installation contains a large amount of data that might take a long time to convert after an in-place upgrade, you might find it useful to create a dummy database instance for assessing what conversions might be needed and the work involved to perform them. Make a copy of your MySQL instance that contains a full copy of the mysql database, plus all other databases without data. Run your upgrade procedure on this dummy instance to see what actions might be needed so that you can better evaluate the work involved when performing actual data conversion on your original database instance.

Read all the items in the following sections to see whether any of them might affect your applications:

Configuration Changes
Server Changes
  • Incompatible change: It is possible for a column DEFAULT value to be valid for the sql_mode value at table-creation time but invalid for the sql_mode value when rows are inserted or updated. Example:

    SET sql_mode = '';
    CREATE TABLE t (d DATE DEFAULT 0);
    SET sql_mode = 'NO_ZERO_DATE,STRICT_ALL_TABLES';
    INSERT INTO t (d) VALUES(DEFAULT);

    In this case, 0 should be accepted for the CREATE TABLE but rejected for the INSERT. However, the server did not evaluate DEFAULT values used for inserts or updates against the current sql_mode. In the example, the INSERT succeeds and inserts '0000-00-00' into the DATE column.

    As of MySQL 5.6.13, the server applies the proper sql_mode checks to generate a warning or error at insert or update time.

    A resulting incompatibility for replication if you use statement-based logging (binlog_format=STATEMENT) is that if a slave is upgraded, a nonupgraded master will execute the preceding example without error, whereas the INSERT will fail on the slave and replication will stop.

    To deal with this, stop all new statements on the master and wait until the slaves catch up. Then upgrade the slaves followed by the master. Alternatively, if you cannot stop new statements, temporarily change to row-based logging on the master (binlog_format=ROW) and wait until all slaves have processed all binary logs produced up to the point of this change. Then upgrade the slaves followed by the master and change the master back to statement-based logging.

  • Incompatible change: MySQL 5.6.11 and later supports CREATE TABLE ... [SUB]PARTITION BY ALGORITHM=n [LINEAR] KEY (...), which can be used to create a table whose KEY partitioning is compatible with a MySQL 5.1 server (n=1). (Bug #14521864, Bug #66462) This syntax is not accepted by MySQL 5.6.10 and earlier, although it is supported in MySQL 5.5 beginning with MySQL 5.5.31. mysqldump in MySQL 5.5.31 and later MySQL 5.5 releases includes the ALGORITHM option when dumping tables using this option, but surrounds it with conditional comments, like this:

    CREATE TABLE t1 (a INT)
    /*!50100 PARTITION BY KEY */ /*!50531 ALGORITHM = 1 */ /*!50100 ()
          PARTITIONS 3 */

    When importing a dump containing such CREATE TABLE statements into a MySQL 5.6.10 or earlier MySQL 5.6 server, the versioned comment is not ignored, which causes a syntax error. Therefore, prior to importing such a dump file, you must either change the comments so that the MySQL 5.6 server ignores them (by removing the string !50531 or replacing it with !50611, wherever it occurs), or remove them.

    This is not an issue with dump files made using MySQL 5.6.11 or later, where the ALGORITHM option is written using /*!50611 ... */.

  • Incompatible change: For TIME, DATETIME, and TIMESTAMP columns, the storage required for tables created before MySQL 5.6.4 differs from storage required for tables created in 5.6.4 and later. This is due to a change in 5.6.4 that permits these temporal types to have a fractional part. After upgrading from MySQL 5.5 to to MySQL 5.6.4 or a later, it is recommended that you also upgrade from MySQL 5.5 to MySQL 5.6 TIME, DATETIME, and TIMESTAMP types. ALTER TABLE currently allows the creation of tables containing temporal columns in both MySQL 5.5 and MySQL 5.6.4 (or later) binary format but this makes it more difficult to recreate tables in cases where .frm files are not available. Additionally, as of MySQL 5.6.4, the aforementioned temporal types are more space efficient. For more information about changes to temporal types in MySQL 5.6.4, see Section 11.6, “ Storage Requirements for Date and Time Types ”.

  • Due to the temporal type changes described in the previous incompatible change item above, importing pre-MySQL 5.6.4 tables that contain DATETIME and TIMESTAMP types into MySQL 5.6.4 (or later) fails. Importing a MySQL 5.5 table with these temporal types into MySQL 5.6.4 (or later) is the mostly likely scenario for this problem to occur.

    The following procedures describe workarounds that use the original pre-MySQL 5.6.4 .frm file to recreate a table with a row structure that is compatible with 5.6.4 (or later). The procedures involve changing the original pre-MySQL 5.6.4 .frm file to use the Memory storage engine instead of InnoDB, copying the .frm file to the data directory of the destination instance, and using ALTER TABLE to change the table's storage engine type back to InnoDB. Use the first procedure if your tables do not have foreign keys. Use the second procedure, which has additional steps, if your table includes foreign keys.

    If the table does not have foreign keys:

    1. Copy the table's original .frm file to the data directory on the server where you want to import the tablespace.

    2. Modify the table's .frm file to use the Memory storage engine instead of the InnoDB storage engine. This modification requires changing 7 bytes in the .frm file that define the table's storage engine type. Using a hexidecimal editing tool:

      • Change the byte at offset position 0003, which is the legacy_db_type, from 0c (for InnoDB) to 06 (for Memory), as shown below:

        00000000  fe 01 09 06 03 00 00 10  01 00 00 30 00 00 10 00
      • The remaining 6 bytes do not have a fixed offset. Search the .frm file for InnoDB to locate the line with the other 6 bytes. The line appears as shown below:

        00001010  ff 00 00 00 00 00 00 06  00 49 6e 6e 6f 44 42 00  |.........InnoDB.|
      • Modify the bytes so that the line appears as follows:

        00001010  ff 00 00 00 00 00 00 06 00 4d 45 4d 4f 52 59 00
    3. Run ALTER TABLE ... ENGINE=INNODB to add the table definition to the InnoDB data dictionary. This creates the InnoDB table with the temporal data types in the new format. For the ALTER TABLE operation to complete successfully, the .frm file must correspond to the tablespace.

    4. Import the table using ALTER TABLE ... IMPORT TABLESPACE.

    If table has foreign keys:

    1. Recreate the tables with foreign keys using table definitions from SHOW CREATE TABLE output. The incorrect temporal column formats do not matter at this point.

    2. Dump all foreign key definitions to a text file by selecting the foreign key information from INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLE_CONSTRAINTS and INFORMATION_SCHEMA.KEY_COLUMN_USAGE.

    3. Drop all tables and complete the table import process described in steps 1 to 4 in the procedure described above for tables without foreign keys.

    4. After the import operation is complete, add the foreign keys from foreign key definitions that you saved to a text file.

  • Incompatible change: As of MySQL 5.6, the full-text stopword file is loaded and searched using latin1 if character_set_server is ucs2, utf16, utf16le, or utf32. If any table was created with FULLTEXT indexes while the server character set was ucs2, utf16, utf16le, or utf32, repair it using this statement:

    REPAIR TABLE tbl_name QUICK;
SQL Changes
  • Some keywords may be reserved in MySQL 5.6 that were not reserved in MySQL 5.5. See Section 9.3, “Reserved Words”.

  • The YEAR(2) data type has certain issues that you should consider before choosing to use it. As of MySQL 5.6.6, YEAR(2) is deprecated. YEAR(2) columns in existing tables are treated as before, but YEAR(2) in new or altered tables are converted to YEAR(4). For more information, see Section 11.3.4, “YEAR(2) Limitations and Migrating to YEAR(4)”.

  • As of MySQL 5.6.6, it is explicitly disallowed to assign the value DEFAULT to stored procedure or function parameters or stored program local variables (for example with a SET var_name = DEFAULT statement). This was not previously supported, or documented as permitted, but is flagged as an incompatible change in case existing code inadvertantly used this construct. It remains permissible to assign DEFAULT to system variables, as before, but assigning DEFAULT to parameters or local variables now results in a syntax error.

    After an upgrade to MySQL 5.6.6 or later, existing stored programs that use this construct produce a syntax error when invoked. If a mysqldump file from 5.6.5 or earlier is loaded into 5.6.6 or later, the load operation fails and affected stored program definitions must be changed.

  • In MySQL, the TIMESTAMP data type differs in nonstandard ways from other data types:

    • TIMESTAMP columns not explicitly declared with the NULL attribute are assigned the NOT NULL attribute. (Columns of other data types, if not explicitly declared as NOT NULL, permit NULL values.) Setting such a column to NULL sets it to the current timestamp.

    • The first TIMESTAMP column in a table, if not declared with the NULL attribute or an explicit DEFAULT or ON UPDATE clause, is automatically assigned the DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP and ON UPDATE CURRENT_TIMESTAMP attributes.

    • TIMESTAMP columns following the first one, if not declared with the NULL attribute or an explicit DEFAULT clause, are automatically assigned DEFAULT '0000-00-00 00:00:00' (the zero timestamp). For inserted rows that specify no explicit value for such a column, the column is assigned '0000-00-00 00:00:00' and no warning occurs.

    Those nonstandard behaviors remain the default for TIMESTAMP but as of MySQL 5.6.6 are deprecated and this warning appears at startup:

    [Warning] TIMESTAMP with implicit DEFAULT value is deprecated.
    Please use --explicit_defaults_for_timestamp server option (see
    documentation for more details).

    As indicated by the warning, to turn off the nonstandard behaviors, enable the new explicit_defaults_for_timestamp system variable at server startup. With this variable enabled, the server handles TIMESTAMP as follows instead:

    • TIMESTAMP columns not explicitly declared as NOT NULL permit NULL values. Setting such a column to NULL sets it to NULL, not the current timestamp.

    • No TIMESTAMP column is assigned the DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP or ON UPDATE CURRENT_TIMESTAMP attributes automatically. Those attributes must be explicitly specified.

    • TIMESTAMP columns declared as NOT NULL and without an explicit DEFAULT clause are treated as having no default value. For inserted rows that specify no explicit value for such a column, the result depends on the SQL mode. If strict SQL mode is enabled, an error occurs. If strict SQL mode is not enabled, the column is assigned the implicit default of '0000-00-00 00:00:00' and a warning occurs. This is similar to how MySQL treats other temporal types such as DATETIME.

    To upgrade servers used for replication, upgrade the slaves first, then the master. Replication between the master and its slaves should work provided that all use the same value of explicit_defaults_for_timestamp:

    1. Bring down the slaves, upgrade them, configure them with the desired value of explicit_defaults_for_timestamp, and bring them back up.

      The slaves will recognize from the format of the binary logs received from the master that the master is older (predates the introduction of explicit_defaults_for_timestamp) and that operations on TIMESTAMP columns coming from the master use the old TIMESTAMP behavior.

    2. Bring down the master, upgrade it, and configure it with the same explicit_defaults_for_timestamp value used on the slaves, and bring it back up.

2.11.2. Downgrading MySQL

This section describes what to do to downgrade to an older MySQL version, in the unlikely case that the previous version worked better than the new one.

It is always a good idea to make a backup beforehand, in case a downgrade fails and leaves the instance in an unusable state.

To downgrade between General Availability (GA) status versions within the same release series, typically you just install the new binaries on top of the old ones and do not make any changes to the databases.

Downgrades between milestone releases (or from a GA release to a milestone release) within the same release series are not supported and you may encounter issues.

The following items form a checklist of things to do whenever you perform a downgrade:

In most cases, you can move the MySQL format files and data files between different GA versions on the same architecture as long as you stay within versions for the same release series of MySQL.

If you downgrade from one release series to another, there may be incompatibilities in table storage formats. In this case, use mysqldump to dump your tables before downgrading. After downgrading, reload the dump file using mysql or mysqlimport to re-create your tables. For examples, see Section 2.11.5, “Copying MySQL Databases to Another Machine”.

A typical symptom of a downward-incompatible table format change when you downgrade is that you cannot open tables. In that case, use the following procedure:

  1. Stop the older MySQL server that you are downgrading to.

  2. Restart the newer MySQL server you are downgrading from.

  3. Dump any tables that were inaccessible to the older server by using mysqldump to create a dump file.

  4. Stop the newer MySQL server and restart the older one.

  5. Reload the dump file into the older server. Your tables should be accessible.

If system tables in the mysql database changed, downgrading might introduce some loss of functionality or require some adjustments. Here are some examples:

  • Trigger creation requires the TRIGGER privilege as of MySQL 5.1. In MySQL 5.0, there is no TRIGGER privilege and SUPER is required instead. If you downgrade from MySQL 5.1 to 5.0, you will need to give the SUPER privilege to those accounts that had the TRIGGER privilege in 5.1.

  • Triggers were added in MySQL 5.0, so if you downgrade from 5.0 to 4.1, you cannot use triggers at all.

  • The mysql.proc.comment column definition changed between MySQL 5.1 and 5.5. After a downgrade from 5.5 to 5.1, this table is seen as corrupt and in need of repair. To workaround this problem, execute mysql_upgrade from the version of MySQL to which you downgraded.

2.11.2.1. Downgrading to MySQL 5.5

When downgrading to MySQL 5.5 from MySQL 5.6, keep in mind the following issues relating to features found in MySQL 5.6, but not in MySQL 5.5:

System Tables
  • The mysql.user table in MySQL 5.6 has a password_expired column. The mysql.user table in MySQL 5.5 does not. This means that an account with an expired password in MySQL 5.6 will work normally in MySQL 5.5.

InnoDB
  • InnoDB search indexes (with a type of FULLTEXT), introduced in MySQL 5.6.4, are not compatible with earlier versions of MySQL, including earlier releases in the 5.6 series. Drop such indexes before performing a downgrade.

  • InnoDB small page sizes specified by the innodb_page_size configuration option, introduced in MySQL 5.6.4, are not compatible with earlier versions of MySQL, including earlier releases in the 5.6 series. Dump all InnoDB tables in instances that use a smaller InnoDB page size, drop the tables, and re-create and reload them after the downgrade.

Replication
  • As of MySQL 5.6, the relay-log.info file contains a line count and a replication delay value, so the file format differs from that in older versions. See Section 16.2.2.2, “Slave Status Logs”. If you downgrade a slave server to a version older than MySQL 5.6, the older server will not read the file correctly. To address this, modify the file in a text editor to delete the initial line containing the number of lines.

  • Beginning with MySQL 5.6.6, the MySQL Server employs Version 2 binary log events when writing the binary log. Binary logs written using Version 2 log events cannot by read by earlier versions of MySQL Server. To generate a binary log that is written using Version 1 log events readable by older servers, start the MySQL 5.6.6 or later server using --log-bin-use-v1-row-events=1, which forces the server to employ Version 1 events when writing the binary log.

2.11.3. Checking Whether Tables or Indexes Must Be Rebuilt

A binary upgrade or downgrade is one that installs one version of MySQL in place over an existing version, without dumping and reloading tables:

  1. Stop the server for the existing version if it is running.

  2. Install a different version of MySQL. This is an upgrade if the new version is higher than the original version, a downgrade if the version is lower.

  3. Start the server for the new version.

In many cases, the tables from the previous version of MySQL can be used without problem by the new version. However, sometimes changes occur that require tables or table indexes to be rebuilt, as described in this section. If you have tables that are affected by any of the issues described here, rebuild the tables or indexes as necessary using the instructions given in Section 2.11.4, “Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes”.

Table Incompatibilities

After a binary upgrade to MySQL 5.1 from a MySQL 5.0 installation that contains ARCHIVE tables, accessing those tables causes the server to crash, even if you have run mysql_upgrade or CHECK TABLE ... FOR UPGRADE. To work around this problem, use mysqldump to dump all ARCHIVE tables before upgrading, and reload them into MySQL 5.1 after upgrading. The same problem occurs for binary downgrades from MySQL 5.1 to 5.0.

The upgrade problem is fixed in MySQL 5.6.4: The server can open ARCHIVE tables created in MySQL 5.0. However, it remains the recommended upgrade procedure to dump 5.0 ARCHIVE tables before upgrading and reload them after upgrading.

Index Incompatibilities

In MySQL 5.6.3, the length limit for index prefix keys is increased from 767 bytes to 3072 bytes, for InnoDB tables using ROW_FORMAT=DYNAMIC or ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED. See Section 14.2.7, “Limits on InnoDB Tables” for details. This change is also backported to MySQL 5.5.14. If you downgrade from one of these releases or higher, to an earlier release with a lower length limit, the index prefix keys could be truncated at 767 bytes or the downgrade could fail. This issue could only occur if the configuration option innodb_large_prefix was enabled on the server being downgraded.

If you perform a binary upgrade without dumping and reloading tables, you cannot upgrade directly from MySQL 4.1 to 5.1 or higher. This occurs due to an incompatible change in the MyISAM table index format in MySQL 5.0. Upgrade from MySQL 4.1 to 5.0 and repair all MyISAM tables. Then upgrade from MySQL 5.0 to 5.1 and check and repair your tables.

Modifications to the handling of character sets or collations might change the character sort order, which causes the ordering of entries in any index that uses an affected character set or collation to be incorrect. Such changes result in several possible problems:

  • Comparison results that differ from previous results

  • Inability to find some index values due to misordered index entries

  • Misordered ORDER BY results

  • Tables that CHECK TABLE reports as being in need of repair

The solution to these problems is to rebuild any indexes that use an affected character set or collation, either by dropping and re-creating the indexes, or by dumping and reloading the entire table. In some cases, it is possible to alter affected columns to use a different collation. For information about rebuilding indexes, see Section 2.11.4, “Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes”.

To check whether a table has indexes that must be rebuilt, consult the following list. It indicates which versions of MySQL introduced character set or collation changes that require indexes to be rebuilt. Each entry indicates the version in which the change occurred and the character sets or collations that the change affects. If the change is associated with a particular bug report, the bug number is given.

The list applies both for binary upgrades and downgrades. For example, Bug #27877 was fixed in MySQL 5.1.24, so it applies to upgrades from versions older than 5.1.24 to 5.1.24 or newer, and to downgrades from 5.1.24 or newer to versions older than 5.1.24.

In many cases, you can use CHECK TABLE ... FOR UPGRADE to identify tables for which index rebuilding is required. It will report this message:

Table upgrade required.
Please do "REPAIR TABLE `tbl_name`" or dump/reload to fix it!

In these cases, you can also use mysqlcheck --check-upgrade or mysql_upgrade, which execute CHECK TABLE. However, the use of CHECK TABLE applies only after upgrades, not downgrades. Also, CHECK TABLE is not applicable to all storage engines. For details about which storage engines CHECK TABLE supports, see Section 13.7.2.2, “CHECK TABLE Syntax”.

These changes cause index rebuilding to be necessary:

  • MySQL 5.1.24 (Bug #27877)

    Affects indexes that use the utf8_general_ci or ucs2_general_ci collation for columns that contain 'ß' LATIN SMALL LETTER SHARP S (German). The bug fix corrected an error in the original collations but introduced an incompatibility such that 'ß' compares equal to characters with which it previously compared different.

    Affected tables can be detected by CHECK TABLE ... FOR UPGRADE as of MySQL 5.1.30 (see Bug #40053).

    A workaround for this issue is implemented as of MySQL 5.1.62, 5.5.21, and 5.6.5. The workaround involves altering affected columns to use the utf8_general_mysql500_ci and ucs2_general_mysql500_ci collations, which preserve the original pre-5.1.24 ordering of utf8_general_ci and ucs2_general_ci.

  • MySQL 5.0.48, 5.1.23 (Bug #27562)

    Affects indexes that use the ascii_general_ci collation for columns that contain any of these characters: '`' GRAVE ACCENT, '[' LEFT SQUARE BRACKET, '\' REVERSE SOLIDUS, ']' RIGHT SQUARE BRACKET, '~' TILDE

    Affected tables can be detected by CHECK TABLE ... FOR UPGRADE as of MySQL 5.1.29 (see Bug #39585).

  • MySQL 5.0.48, 5.1.21 (Bug #29461)

    Affects indexes for columns that use any of these character sets: eucjpms, euc_kr, gb2312, latin7, macce, ujis

    Affected tables can be detected by CHECK TABLE ... FOR UPGRADE as of MySQL 5.1.29 (see Bug #39585).

2.11.4. Rebuilding or Repairing Tables or Indexes

This section describes how to rebuild a table, following changes to MySQL such as how data types or character sets are handled. For example, an error in a collation might have been corrected, requiring a table rebuild to update the indexes for character columns that use the collation. (For examples, see Section 2.11.3, “Checking Whether Tables or Indexes Must Be Rebuilt”.) You might also need to repair or upgrade a table, as indicated by a table check operation such as that performed by CHECK TABLE, mysqlcheck, or mysql_upgrade.

Methods for rebuilding a table include dumping and reloading it, or using ALTER TABLE or REPAIR TABLE.

Note

If you are rebuilding tables because a different version of MySQL will not handle them after a binary (in-place) upgrade or downgrade, you must use the dump-and-reload method. Dump the tables before upgrading or downgrading using your original version of MySQL. Then reload the tables after upgrading or downgrading.

If you use the dump-and-reload method of rebuilding tables only for the purpose of rebuilding indexes, you can perform the dump either before or after upgrading or downgrading. Reloading still must be done afterward.

To rebuild a table by dumping and reloading it, use mysqldump to create a dump file and mysql to reload the file:

shell> mysqldump db_name t1 > dump.sql
shell> mysql db_name < dump.sql

To rebuild all the tables in a single database, specify the database name without any following table name:

shell> mysqldump db_name > dump.sql
shell> mysql db_name < dump.sql

To rebuild all tables in all databases, use the --all-databases option:

shell> mysqldump --all-databases > dump.sql
shell> mysql < dump.sql

To rebuild a table with ALTER TABLE, use a null alteration; that is, an ALTER TABLE statement that changes the table to use the storage engine that it already has. For example, if t1 is a MyISAM table, use this statement:

mysql> ALTER TABLE t1 ENGINE = MyISAM;

If you are not sure which storage engine to specify in the ALTER TABLE statement, use SHOW CREATE TABLE to display the table definition.

If you must rebuild a table because a table checking operation indicates that the table is corrupt or needs an upgrade, you can use REPAIR TABLE if that statement supports the table's storage engine. For example, to repair a MyISAM table, use this statement:

mysql> REPAIR TABLE t1;

For storage engines such as InnoDB that REPAIR TABLE does not support, use mysqldump to create a dump file and mysql to reload the file, as described earlier.

For specifics about which storage engines REPAIR TABLE supports, see Section 13.7.2.5, “REPAIR TABLE Syntax”.

mysqlcheck --repair provides command-line access to the REPAIR TABLE statement. This can be a more convenient means of repairing tables because you can use the --databases or --all-databases option to repair all tables in specific databases or all databases, respectively:

shell> mysqlcheck --repair --databases db_name ...
shell> mysqlcheck --repair --all-databases

For incompatibilities introduced in MySQL 5.1.24 by the fix for Bug #27877 that corrected the utf8_general_ci and ucs2_general_ci collations, a workaround is implemented as of MySQL 5.1.62, 5.5.21, and 5.6.5. Upgrade to one of those versions, then convert each affected table using one of the following methods. In each case, the workaround altering affected columns to use the utf8_general_mysql500_ci and ucs2_general_mysql500_ci collations, which preserve the original pre-5.1.24 ordering of utf8_general_ci and ucs2_general_ci.

  • To convert an affected table after a binary upgrade that leaves the table files in place, alter the table to use the new collation. Suppose that the table t1 contains one or more problematic utf8 columns. To convert the table at the table level, use a statement like this:

    ALTER TABLE t1
    CONVERT TO CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_general_mysql500_ci;

    To apply the change on a column-specific basis, use a statement like this (be sure to repeat the column definition as originally specified except for the COLLATE clause):

    ALTER TABLE t1
    MODIFY c1 CHAR(N) CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_general_mysql500_ci;
  • To upgrade the table using a dump and reload procedure, dump the table using mysqldump, modify the CREATE TABLE statement in the dump file to use the new collation, and reload the table.

After making the appropriate changes, CHECK TABLE should report no error.

2.11.5. Copying MySQL Databases to Another Machine

You can copy the .frm, .MYI, and .MYD files for MyISAM tables between different architectures that support the same floating-point format. (MySQL takes care of any byte-swapping issues.) See Section 14.3, “The MyISAM Storage Engine”.

In cases where you need to transfer databases between different architectures, you can use mysqldump to create a file containing SQL statements. You can then transfer the file to the other machine and feed it as input to the mysql client.

Use mysqldump --help to see what options are available.

The easiest (although not the fastest) way to move a database between two machines is to run the following commands on the machine on which the database is located:

shell> mysqladmin -h 'other_hostname' create db_name
shell> mysqldump db_name | mysql -h 'other_hostname' db_name

If you want to copy a database from a remote machine over a slow network, you can use these commands:

shell> mysqladmin create db_name
shell> mysqldump -h 'other_hostname' --compress db_name | mysql db_name

You can also store the dump in a file, transfer the file to the target machine, and then load the file into the database there. For example, you can dump a database to a compressed file on the source machine like this:

shell> mysqldump --quick db_name | gzip > db_name.gz

Transfer the file containing the database contents to the target machine and run these commands there:

shell> mysqladmin create db_name
shell> gunzip < db_name.gz | mysql db_name

You can also use mysqldump and mysqlimport to transfer the database. For large tables, this is much faster than simply using mysqldump. In the following commands, DUMPDIR represents the full path name of the directory you use to store the output from mysqldump.

First, create the directory for the output files and dump the database:

shell> mkdir DUMPDIR
shell> mysqldump --tab=DUMPDIR db_name

Then transfer the files in the DUMPDIR directory to some corresponding directory on the target machine and load the files into MySQL there:

shell> mysqladmin create db_name           # create database
shell> cat DUMPDIR/*.sql | mysql db_name   # create tables in database
shell> mysqlimport db_name DUMPDIR/*.txt   # load data into tables

Do not forget to copy the mysql database because that is where the grant tables are stored. You might have to run commands as the MySQL root user on the new machine until you have the mysql database in place.

After you import the mysql database on the new machine, execute mysqladmin flush-privileges so that the server reloads the grant table information.

2.12. Environment Variables

This section lists all the environment variables that are used directly or indirectly by MySQL. Most of these can also be found in other places in this manual.

Note that any options on the command line take precedence over values specified in option files and environment variables, and values in option files take precedence over values in environment variables.

In many cases, it is preferable to use an option file instead of environment variables to modify the behavior of MySQL. See Section 4.2.3.3, “Using Option Files”.

VariableDescription
CXXThe name of your C++ compiler (for running CMake).
CCThe name of your C compiler (for running CMake).
CFLAGSFlags for your C compiler (for running CMake).
CXXFLAGSFlags for your C++ compiler (for running CMake).
DBI_USERThe default user name for Perl DBI.
DBI_TRACETrace options for Perl DBI.
HOMEThe default path for the mysql history file is $HOME/.mysql_history.
LD_RUN_PATHUsed to specify the location of libmysqlclient.so.
LIBMYSQL_ENABLE_CLEARTEXT_PLUGINEnable mysql_clear_password authentication plugin; see Section 6.3.7.7, “The Cleartext Client-Side Authentication Plugin”.
LIBMYSQL_PLUGIN_DIRDirectory in which to look for client plugins.
LIBMYSQL_PLUGINSClient plugins to preload.
MYSQL_DEBUGDebug trace options when debugging.
MYSQL_GROUP_SUFFIXOption group suffix value (like specifying --defaults-group-suffix).
MYSQL_HISTFILEThe path to the mysql history file. If this variable is set, its value overrides the default for $HOME/.mysql_history.
MYSQL_HISTIGNOREPatterns specifying statements not to log to $HOME/.mysql_history.
MYSQL_HOMEThe path to the directory in which the server-specific my.cnf file resides.
MYSQL_HOSTThe default host name used by the mysql command-line client.
MYSQL_PS1The command prompt to use in the mysql command-line client.
MYSQL_PWDThe default password when connecting to mysqld. Note that using this is insecure. See Section 6.1.2.1, “End-User Guidelines for Password Security”.
MYSQL_TCP_PORTThe default TCP/IP port number.
MYSQL_TEST_LOGIN_FILEThe name of the .mylogin.cnf login file.
MYSQL_UNIX_PORTThe default Unix socket file name; used for connections to localhost.
PATHUsed by the shell to find MySQL programs.
TMPDIRThe directory where temporary files are created.
TZThis should be set to your local time zone. See Section C.5.4.6, “Time Zone Problems”.
UMASKThe user-file creation mode when creating files. See note following table.
UMASK_DIRThe user-directory creation mode when creating directories. See note following table.
USERThe default user name on Windows when connecting to mysqld.

For information about the mysql history file, see Section 4.5.1.3, “mysql Logging”.

MYSQL_TEST_LOGIN_FILE is the path name of the login file (the file created by mysql_config_editor). If not set, the default value is %APPDATA%\MySQL\.mylogin.cnf directory on Windows and $HOME/.mylogin.cnf on non-Windows systems. See Section 4.6.6, “mysql_config_editor — MySQL Configuration Utility”.

The UMASK and UMASK_DIR variables, despite their names, are used as modes, not masks:

  • If UMASK is set, mysqld uses ($UMASK | 0600) as the mode for file creation, so that newly created files have a mode in the range from 0600 to 0666 (all values octal).

  • If UMASK_DIR is set, mysqld uses ($UMASK_DIR | 0700) as the base mode for directory creation, which then is AND-ed with ~(~$UMASK & 0666), so that newly created directories have a mode in the range from 0700 to 0777 (all values octal). The AND operation may remove read and write permissions from the directory mode, but not execute permissions.

MySQL assumes that the value for UMASK or UMASK_DIR is in octal if it starts with a zero.

2.13. Perl Installation Notes

The Perl DBI module provides a generic interface for database access. You can write a DBI script that works with many different database engines without change. To use DBI, you must install the DBI module, as well as a DataBase Driver (DBD) module for each type of database server you want to access. For MySQL, this driver is the DBD::mysql module.

Perl, and the DBD::MySQL module for DBI must be installed if you want to run the MySQL benchmark scripts; see Section 8.12.2, “The MySQL Benchmark Suite”.

Note

Perl support is not included with MySQL distributions. You can obtain the necessary modules from http://search.cpan.org for Unix, or by using the ActiveState ppm program on Windows. The following sections describe how to do this.

The DBI/DBD interface requires Perl 5.6.0, and 5.6.1 or later is preferred. DBI does not work if you have an older version of Perl. You should use DBD::mysql 4.009 or higher. Although earlier versions are available, they do not support the full functionality of MySQL 5.6.

2.13.1. Installing Perl on Unix

MySQL Perl support requires that you have installed MySQL client programming support (libraries and header files). Most installation methods install the necessary files. If you install MySQL from RPM files on Linux, be sure to install the developer RPM as well. The client programs are in the client RPM, but client programming support is in the developer RPM.

The files you need for Perl support can be obtained from the CPAN (Comprehensive Perl Archive Network) at http://search.cpan.org.

The easiest way to install Perl modules on Unix is to use the CPAN module. For example:

shell> perl -MCPAN -e shell
cpan> install DBI
cpan> install DBD::mysql

The DBD::mysql installation runs a number of tests. These tests attempt to connect to the local MySQL server using the default user name and password. (The default user name is your login name on Unix, and ODBC on Windows. The default password is no password.) If you cannot connect to the server with those values (for example, if your account has a password), the tests fail. You can use force install DBD::mysql to ignore the failed tests.

DBI requires the Data::Dumper module. It may be installed; if not, you should install it before installing DBI.

It is also possible to download the module distributions in the form of compressed tar archives and build the modules manually. For example, to unpack and build a DBI distribution, use a procedure such as this:

  1. Unpack the distribution into the current directory:

    shell> gunzip < DBI-VERSION.tar.gz | tar xvf -

    This command creates a directory named DBI-VERSION.

  2. Change location into the top-level directory of the unpacked distribution:

    shell> cd DBI-VERSION
  3. Build the distribution and compile everything:

    shell> perl Makefile.PL
    shell> make
    shell> make test
    shell> make install

The make test command is important because it verifies that the module is working. Note that when you run that command during the DBD::mysql installation to exercise the interface code, the MySQL server must be running or the test fails.

It is a good idea to rebuild and reinstall the DBD::mysql distribution whenever you install a new release of MySQL. This ensures that the latest versions of the MySQL client libraries are installed correctly.

If you do not have access rights to install Perl modules in the system directory or if you want to install local Perl modules, the following reference may be useful: http://servers.digitaldaze.com/extensions/perl/modules.html#modules

Look under the heading Installing New Modules that Require Locally Installed Modules.

2.13.2. Installing ActiveState Perl on Windows

On Windows, you should do the following to install the MySQL DBD module with ActiveState Perl:

  1. Get ActiveState Perl from http://www.activestate.com/Products/ActivePerl/ and install it.

  2. Open a console window.

  3. If necessary, set the HTTP_proxy variable. For example, you might try a setting like this:

    C:\> set HTTP_proxy=my.proxy.com:3128
  4. Start the PPM program:

    C:\> C:\perl\bin\ppm.pl
  5. If you have not previously done so, install DBI:

    ppm> install DBI
  6. If this succeeds, run the following command:

    ppm> install DBD-mysql

This procedure should work with ActiveState Perl 5.6 or newer.

If you cannot get the procedure to work, you should install the ODBC driver instead and connect to the MySQL server through ODBC:

use DBI;
$dbh= DBI->connect("DBI:ODBC:$dsn",$user,$password) ||
die "Got error $DBI::errstr when connecting to $dsn\n";

2.13.3. Problems Using the Perl DBI/DBD Interface

If Perl reports that it cannot find the ../mysql/mysql.so module, the problem is probably that Perl cannot locate the libmysqlclient.so shared library. You should be able to fix this problem by one of the following methods:

  • Copy libmysqlclient.so to the directory where your other shared libraries are located (probably /usr/lib or /lib).

  • Modify the -L options used to compile DBD::mysql to reflect the actual location of libmysqlclient.so.

  • On Linux, you can add the path name of the directory where libmysqlclient.so is located to the /etc/ld.so.conf file.

  • Add the path name of the directory where libmysqlclient.so is located to the LD_RUN_PATH environment variable. Some systems use LD_LIBRARY_PATH instead.

Note that you may also need to modify the -L options if there are other libraries that the linker fails to find. For example, if the linker cannot find libc because it is in /lib and the link command specifies -L/usr/lib, change the -L option to -L/lib or add -L/lib to the existing link command.

If you get the following errors from DBD::mysql, you are probably using gcc (or using an old binary compiled with gcc):

/usr/bin/perl: can't resolve symbol '__moddi3'
/usr/bin/perl: can't resolve symbol '__divdi3'

Add -L/usr/lib/gcc-lib/... -lgcc to the link command when the mysql.so library gets built (check the output from make for mysql.so when you compile the Perl client). The -L option should specify the path name of the directory where libgcc.a is located on your system.

Another cause of this problem may be that Perl and MySQL are not both compiled with gcc. In this case, you can solve the mismatch by compiling both with gcc.

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